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Health Knowledge Nutrition

Foundational Techniques For Dietetics Calculations

Do you also find it difficult to solve basic dietetics calculations’ including Body Mass Index (BMI), Ideal Body Weight (IBW), Fluid Requirement (FR), Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)? I have some good news for you so don’t worry anymore. In this article I will tell you the fundamental techniques to solve these calculations smoothly and ace your exams. Let’s begin!

  1.       BMI

You might wonder what is BMI? Don’t worry I got you covered.

Body mass index, or BMI, is a ratio of weight to height. It’s an accurate approach to determine whether a person’s weight is balanced with his/her height.

FORMULA:    BMI= Weight (in kg) / Height (in m2)

let’s take an example here:

Example: Shabnam is a university student having weight 65kg and height 5 feet 3 inches. What would be her BMI?

Data available:

Weight = 65kg

 Height = 5’3”

BMI =?

SOLUTION:

                                   BMI= W (in kg)/H (in m2).

Firstly, we will convert height in feet to height in meter2. For that multiply feet given with 12 and then add the additional inches. After this multiply the total inches with 0.0254 and you will get your answer in meter. Now you have to take square of the height in meter and you will get m2.

Height= (5×12) + 3 = 63 inches

H=63×0.0254 =1.60m

H= 1.60×1.60 = 2.56m2

Now put the values in given formula.

 BMI= 65/2.56

                                      BMI= 25 kg/m2 

To save time, you can find BMI with our online BMI Calculator: http://sehatnutrition.org/bmi-calculator/ 

  1. IBW

Ideal body weight, or IBW, is thought to be the healthiest weight for an individual, based mostly on height but adjusted by elements including gender, age, build, and level of muscle development. For men, ideal body weight is calculated by using 106 pounds for the first 5 feet of height and adding 6 additional pounds for each inch. Women ideal body weight calculation starts with 100 pounds for the first 5 feet of height, and you only add 5 pounds for each additional inch. We will learn the calculations for both genders one by one.

FORMULA:

(For a male) 106lbs for first 5 feet and 6lbs for additional inches.

(For a female) 100lbs for first 5 feet and 5lbs for additional inches.

  1. IBW FOR MALE

Example: Hamid is a diploma student and his height is 5 feet 9 inches. What would be his IBW?

Data available:

Height=5’9”

IBW=?

Solution:

IBW = 106lb + 6lb (inches over 5 feet)

IBW= 106 lb. + 6lb (9”)

Multiply 6 with 9 inches,

IBW= 106lb + 54lb

Now add the lbs.

IBW= 160lb

To convert it into kg divide by 2.2:

IBW= 160/2.2 =72.7kg

 

  1. IBW FOR FEMALE

Example: Saima works in a hotel as a receptionist and her height is 5 feet 3 inches. What would be her IBW?

Data available:

Height=5’3”

IBW=?

Solution:

IBW = 100lb + 5lb (inches over 5’)

IBW= 100 lb + 5lb (3”)

Multiply 5 with 3 inches,

IBW= 100lb + 15lb

Now add the lbs.

IBW= 115lb

To convert it into kg divide by 2.2:

IBW= 115/2.2 =52.2kg

To save time, you can find BMI with our online BMI Calculator: http://sehatnutrition.org/ideal-weight-calculator/

  1.   Fluid requirement

Why calculating fluid requirement is necessary in nutrition?

BECAUSE! A vital component of life and health, water is involved in almost every process of the human body. The amount of fluid that each person needs is determined by their weight and varies with each individual. People are advised to follow the reference values of the fluid need in order to maintain the proper balance between water intake and water losses.

FORMULA: First 20kg 1500 ml & for each additional kg add 25 ml.

Example: A college student wants to know her daily fluid requirement, her weight is 65kg. What would be her FR?

Data available:

Weight= 65 kg

Solution:

1500ml for the first 20kg and 25ml for each additional kg.

Fluid requirement= 1500ml + (25×45) ml

Fluid requirement= 1500ml + 1125ml

Fluid requirement= 2625ml

Conversion:

1 glass (1cup) = 250 ml

e.g. if one’s fluid requirement is 2000 ml, it can be calculated as 2000 ÷ 250 = 8 (means 8 glasses).

However, in this case:

Fluid requirement= 2625/250ml

  Fluid requirement= 11 glass /day

 

CALCULATION OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

Method: USING HARRIS BENEDICT EQUATION:

Total Energy Requirement = BEE x Activity Factor x Injury factor

 

Step  I:
 Calculate BEE (Basal Energy Expenditure) or BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate): Energy expended on basic body functions needed to sustain life.

BMR for female = 655 + (9.6× weight in kilos) + (1.8 ×height in cm) – (4.7 × age in years)

BMR for male = 66 + (13.7 × weight in kilos) + (5 X height in cm) – (6.8 × age in years)

Conversions: 

Weight in kg = weight in lbs/2.2  

Height in cm =height in inches x 2.54

Step II:

Multiply BMR by the appropriate activity factor, as follows:

  • Sedentary(little or no exercise): BMR x 1-1.2
  • Lightly active(light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week): BMR x 1.1- 1.375
  • Moderately active(moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week): BMR x 1.55
  • Very active(hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week): BMR x 1.725
  • Extra active(very hard exercise/sports & physical job): BMR x 1.9

Step III:

Multiply by injury factor.

  • Surgery: Minor = 1.0 – 1.1 Major = 1.3 – 1.9
  • Infection: Mild = 1.0 – 1.2 Moderate = 1.2 -1.5 Severe = 1.4 -1.8
  • Trauma: Skeletal = 1.2 – 1.35 Blunt = 1.15 – 1.35
  • Burns: severe thermal= 2.1
  • Sepsis: 5 – 2.0
  • Cancers: 0 – 1.5
  • COPD, malnourished: 3

 

STEP 1: BEE

BEE, the most imperative part of Dietetics calculation which you would not want to neglect! So, let’s see what is it?

The quantity of energy, expressed in kcal/day or kj/day, that should be required to support all body functions and movements for an organism to exist for a day is known as basal energy expenditure (BEE). BEE may be computed using the Harris-Benedict basal energy expenditure formulae. The BEE may make up 40–70% of overall energy expenditure, depending on the level of physical activity. We will learn the calculations for both genders one by one.

  1. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEMALE

Example: Javeria is 21 years old first year medical student. Her weight is 65kg, and height is 5’3”. She has a sedentary lifestyle and don’t have any injury at present. Calculate her Total Energy Expenditure.

Data available:

WT= 65KG

HT= 5’3”

AGE= 21yrs

Physical activity= Sedentary

Injury factor= none

SOLUTION:

first, we will Convert height in “cm”

HT=5’3” =5×12+3=63”

HT=63” × 2.54= 160 cm

now we will calculate BEE:

BEE=655.1+ {9.6×WT (kg)} + {1.85×HT (cm)}-{4.7×Age(years)}

BEE=655.1+{9.6×65kg} + {1.85×160cm}-{4.7×21years}

BEE= 655.1+624+296- 98.7

BEE= 1476.4 kcals

STEP 2: TEE

How can we forget TEE!

Calories burned throughout the course of a 24-hour period are measured as total energy expenditure (TEE). These calories are produced by the body as it works to maintain its own survival, including all physical activity as well as cognitive and digestive processes like breathing and digesting.

FORMULA: TEE=BEE × PHYSICAL ACTIVITY × INJURY FACTOR

put values:

TEE=1476.4 × 1.1 × 1                                

 TEE=1624.04 kcals 

  1. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR MALE

STEP 1: BEE

Example: Ahmad is 45 years old accountant. His weight is 87kg, and height is 5’9”. She has a slightly active lifestyle and don’t have any injury at present. Calculate his Total Energy Expenditure.

Data available:

Weight = 87kg

Age = 45yrs

Height = 5’9”

Physical activity = 1.1 (slightly active)

I.F= none

SOLUTION:

first, we will Convert height in “cm”

HT=5’9” =5×12+4=69”

HT=69” × 2.54= 175.26 cm

BEE=66.5+ {13.7×WT (kg)} + {5×HT (cm)}-{6.8×Age(years)}

BEE=66.5+ {13.7×87 (kg)} + {5×175.26 (cm)}-{6.8×45(years)}

BEE= 66.5+1191.9+876.3-306

BEE= 1828.7 kcals

STEP 2: TEE

FORMULA: TEE=BEE × PHYSICAL ACTIVITY × INJURY FACTOR 

TEE=1828.7 × 1.1 × 1

TEE= 2011.5 kcals

 

The above-mentioned calculations with their purposes will assist you both academically and for customizing Diet plans. Therefore, always keep in mind PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT And never stop practicing. BEST OF LUCK!

Dn.Misbah Saher is a top student of Diet and Nutrition at University of Lahore. She is also a freelance nutritionist and Blog-writer, keen in spreading awareness about Diet and Health related issues. She can be reached at @dietitians_corner.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Food Food Habits Knowledge Nutrition

Dangers of Sugar to our Body

Sugar is a broad term that is used a lot in daily rituals. We are consuming sugar in large amounts, which is present in almost all food items. Fruits, vegetables, sugary drinks, candies, and all sorts of food items are packed with sugar. Some have minimal sugar, while others are loaded heavily with this component. Sugar is present in natural and artificial forms in food items. Natural sources of sugar, such as fruits and dairy products, have less detrimental effects on the body than the artificial sugars from beverages, sodas, and desserts. So the question arises: What are the dangers of eating sugar, and how can we deal with them?

The alarming statistics on sugar consumption and the effects of sugar claim that unacceptable levels of sugar in the body could disrupt the metabolic, hormonal, and physiological conditions of the body leading to the initiation of various ailments, including:

  • Heart diseases
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Cancers
  • Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
  • Osteoporosis

The term ‘natural sugar’ does not mean that it is overall a healthy item for our health. Raw sugar is present in all the food items we consume daily, including high-carb meals and high-glycemic-index foods that can cause sudden blood sugar spikes. Other than this, there are hidden sugars in packaged and processed foods that should be considered. All the names mentioned on packaged items like brown sugar, corn sweetener, cane sugar, lactose, rice sugar, molasses, maple syrup, and others are the hidden forms of sugar that leave the same effect on the body. We should keep an eye on our daily sugar intake for our body.

Sometimes the sugar levels are high in the body, and we cannot figure out the exact issue, so various tests are available to detect the root cause of symptoms. There are many dangers of consuming too much sugar. HbA1c is a test in which the amount of glucose attached to the hemoglobin (red blood cell) is checked. 

  • Diabetes
  • Eye disorders
  • Hypertension and raised blood glucose can lead to:
  • Hyper and hypoglycemia
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Ketoacidosis 
  • Cataract

The Carbohydrate model of Sugar & Metabolic syndrome

The carbohydrate model is related to sugar addiction and the increased urge to consume sugar in the body. Our 80% of food items are loaded with sugars in different forms like lactose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, etc. Processed foods include artificial conditions of sugar that can raise blood sugar levels. The number of carbohydrates we consume in the body is directly associated with the levels of blood sugars in the body. 

The end-product of carbohydrates is glucose which is also called simple sugar. Simple sugar is responsible for raising blood sugar levels in the body. The higher levels of blood sugar in the body are managed by the hormone insulin, which converts the excess sugar into fat and drives the glucose in cells. This whole mechanism does not provide a feeling of fullness, and the person feels less satiated, which triggers the hunger hormone, and the person ends up attaining pleasure from sweet tastes. 

The beginning of metabolic syndrome

We consume carbohydrates in more amounts than other food groups as our central calorie intake revolves around this macronutrient for energy production. The end product of carbohydrates that is glucose, is managed by insulin that forces extra sugar to be converted into body fat for later use. Over the years, when we keep adding sugar and excess carbohydrates through carbohydrate loading in the body, our cells lose the ability to use the sugar for energy through the mitochondrial process.

It raises the sugar level in the bloodstream to a toxic level and leads to glycation, inflammation, and associated disorders. This overcompensation of compounds causes insulin resistance in the body that leads to the provocation of various metabolic diseases like:

  1. Increase levels of fasting blood sugar
  2. Excess levels of insulin
  3. Obesity
  4. High levels of triglycerides
  5. Lower levels of HDL and higher levels of LDL
  6. High blood pressure

 

  1. INCREASE RISK OF TYPE-2 DIABETES

It is seen that the endurance of diabetes has widely prevailed all around the globe in the past few years. It is considered the cancer danger of sugar. Although there are many different reasons for diabetes in human beings, it is scientifically proven that excessive sugar intake in the body leads to diabetes. Again, obesity is a widely spreading disease caused due to excessive intake of sugar, and it leads to the occurrence of diabetes in human beings. Also, it is seen that with increased intake, sugar causes resistance in the working pattern of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone that is naturally produced in the human body, produced in the pancreas and works to regulate the blood sugar level in the human body. With resistance in the work pattern on the insulin hormone, the blood sugar level in the body rises and increases the risk for diabetes.

 

  1. EXCESSIVE SUGAR INTAKE LEADS TO OBESITY

It is seen all over the globe that obesity is considered an alarming problem not only in adults but in people of all age groups, from children to people of older ages. One of the main factors which play a vital role in obesity is soft drinks. Different researches are conducted all over the globe which proves that people who love to drink fizzy drinks and other drinks which contain added sugar in them are seen to be suffering from obesity at a very high rate, as compared to other people who don’t tend to take soft drinks much often. The reason for this is that sweetened drinks are rich in a nutrient which is called fructose. The main function of fructose when it enters the human body is that it increases the urge to hunger, leading to an increase in appetite, eventually leading to obesity.

 

  1. INCREASES THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

High sugar intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The reason is that it has been proved by several medical science researchers that high sugar intake causes obesity, which eventually leads to inflammation of the arteries and blood vessels, which further leads to chronic heart diseases that can cause the death of a person. Also, it has been seen that consuming too much sugar in diets and sweetened drinks can lead to a disease called atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by fatty, artery-clogging deposits. In short, diets rich in high sugar can cause a person to develop heart disease, which can eventually lead to the death of a person.

 

  1. LINKED TO ACNE

The leading cause of acne and breakouts on our skin is a diet rich in sugar and sweets. The raised level of blood sugar and insulin triggers the release of androgens which increases oil production and excretion of sebum on the skin, causing acne. Can you be allergic to sugar? Yes, you can be allergic to sugar leading to a disastrous form of acne.

Sugar is available in various forms in almost all types of foods. The difference between low and high glycemic index foods helps people keep their quantity in moderation. There are fewer chances of development of acne if a diet revolves around low glycemic index foods. 

Research has proved that a diet low in glycemic index foods helps the person maintain the sugar and carbohydrate levels in the body and improves the acne. Acne, breakouts, and increased sebum and oil production in the skin are more due to intake of oily foods, refined carbohydrates, and high-sugar beverages and sodas. 

 

  1. IT MIGHT INCREASE THE RISK OF CANCER

Eating meals rich in sugar significantly increases the risk of cancer in people. The reason for this is that, again, eating a diet that is high in sugar increases obesity in people, which eventually disturbs the mechanism of the overall human body, which can then lead to fatal diseases such as cancer.

 

  1. CONTRIBUTES TO THE ACCELERATION OF THE AGING PROCESS

Wrinkles are a natural process that appears on the skin of human beings, which shows that the person’s age is increasing with time. Although it is a natural process, some factors either accelerate or decelerate the aging process. Consuming too much sugar or eating food that contains excessive sugar in them accelerates the aging process a lot. The mechanism for this is that a diet rich in sugar causes significant damage to elastin and collagen, due to which the skin loses its firmness; hence, wrinkles are produced on the face and skin. 

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Micronutrients Nutrition Vitamins

Vitamin K

People often wonder if they can give their newborn babies vitamin K or not. People also don’t have the basic awareness of whether vitamin K is essential for their children or not. This article would elaborate the need for vitamin K, the benefits of this vitamin, and the basic information about why vitamin K is necessary for human beings.

WHAT IS VITAMIN K?

Vitamin K is basically known as the fat-soluble vitamin which is found in food and other dietary supplements. The basic function of vitamin K in the human body is actually the post-synthetic modifications of certain proteins that are present in the human body. It is essential for blood coagulation in the human body and is also required in order to control the binding function of calcium in the bones and other tissues of the body.

Vitamin K is found in a number of food items which include cauliflowers, spinach, kale, mustard greens, and other vegetables. However, the chief source of vitamin K, where it is known to be produced, is the bacteria that is present in the large intestine of the human body.

BENEFITS OF TAKING VITAMIN K

There are a number of benefits that can be taken by regularly absorbing vitamin K into our bodies. Some of those benefits are listed below

  1. HELPS IN BLOOD CLOTTING

Vitamin K is the basic vitamin that helps the body to make various proteins in the body that essentially help the function of blood coagulation in the body. It is also known as anticoagulant vitamin K. Other than that, those proteins which are produced by vitamin K also play a vital role in the building of bones in the human body. Vitamin K produces four different types of proteins that help the blood clot, in order to stop excessive bleeding in case of wounds. In simpler words, vitamin K helps the blood to stop overflowing from the wounds so that they can heal properly and quickly. Since vitamin K has a blood coagulating function, so it works to counteract the function of blood thinner medicines, which are often prescribed to people suffering from heart diseases.

  1. PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN BONE HEALTH

Vitamin K plays a vital role in the nourishment of the health of the bones of the human body. Vitamin K produces a protein which is known as osteocalcin. The function of this protein is that it helps the bones grow stronger, and prevents the weakness of bones. There are some studies that show that people who have a higher intake of vitamin K in their bodies are at low risk of hip fracture and low bone density, as compared to those people who do not have a proper intake of vitamin K in their bodies.

  1. HEART DISEASES

Vitamin K also plays an important role in enhancing the health of the human heart, and thus reduces the risk of heart diseases. There are not so many researches that prove this fact, but still, there are some researches that show that vitamin K produces a protein which is called matrix GLA protein. This protein works to prevent the calcification of the arteries of the heart, which itself is a very big risk factor leading to heart diseases.

FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN K

Although vitamin K is a vitamin that is naturally produced in the human body, it still has some sources through which human beings can obtain and ingest it into their bodies. Those few food sources are as follows;

  • PHYLLOQUINONE

It means green leafy vegetables. These vegetables include collards, turnip, green spinach, broccoli, cabbage and lettuce.

  • Soybeans and canola oils are also a source of vitamin K
  • Salad dressings made with soybean or canola oil.
  • Fortified meal replacement shakes

How much Vitamin K is required?

According to the National Library of Medicine, the recommended dietary amount (RDA) of vitamin K in different age groups is as follows:

  • Infants up to age group 1-3 years need 30 mcg per day
  • Children up to the age of 4-8 years need 55 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 9-13 years need 60 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 14-18 years need 75 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 9-13 years need 60 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 14-18 years need 75 mcg per day
  • Adults (men) up to the age of 19+ years need 120 mcg per day
  • Adults (women) up to the age of 19+ years need 90 mcg per day
  • Older adults (men) up to the age of more than 70 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (women) up to the age of more than 70 years need 1.1 mg per day

SIGNS OF VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY

Medical science says that vitamin K deficiency is hard to occur in adults. However, it is commonly seen in people who suffer from some major heart problems or other diseases and physicians prescribe blood-thinning medicines for them. A deficiency is also possible in newborn infants because vitamin K does not cross the placenta, and breast milk contains a low amount. Other than that, a deficiency in vitamin K causes:

  1. LONGER TIME FOR BLOOD TO CLOT

If it takes blood a little longer time than usual to clot on a wound so that the blood can be stopped, then there is a chance that the person might be going through a deficiency of vitamin K

  1. EXCESSIVE BLEEDING

If it is seen in a person that bleeding for no reason is common, bleeding excessively takes place in the human body, there is a chance that the person might be going through deficiency of vitamin K

  1. HEMORRHAGE
  2. OSTEOPENIA
  3. OSTEOPOROSIS

All these above-mentioned symptoms are related to vitamin K deficiency. If they are seen in a person, it is recommended that the person should consult a doctor on priority.

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Nutrition

Health Tips for Eid-ul-Adha

As the meaty Eid-ul-Adha is approaching, we are all getting ready to fill our bellies with hot plates of mutton biryani, top-notch steaks, and delectable kebabs. During this time of year, a lavish feast is prepared, and everyone enjoys the appetizing dishes made with the meat of the sacrificed goat or sheep. The abundance of meat—all of it prime, juicy, and delicious—brings with it a lack of self-control. And thus we inevitably eat way too much food.

Because of this, a lot of individuals visit hospitals after Eid. There are, however, methods to enjoy your feast while remaining healthy during Eid.

To ensure that you feel your best throughout the Eid-ul-Adha celebrations, follow these really simple guidelines:

It matters what kind of meat you eat

There are many different types of sacrificed meat available because several animals are slaughtered on Eid-ul-Adha. Meats like beef, mutton, lamb, and camel all have different compositions. Some of them have more fat than others, while others are a little bit leaner.

Typically, 100g of lamb meat has 21g of fat, compared to 3g in mutton, 30g in ground beef with 70% lean meat, and 6.4g in camel meat. Keep in mind that the longer it takes for the body to digest anything, the higher the satiety. Therefore, size your servings accordingly during Eid-ul-Adha while considering the type of meat you intend to eat.

The parts of the animal matter

Depending on the animal’s anatomy, fat and protein are distributed differently in different animals. The shanks and the neck, which have leaner flesh, are preferable to the sections with more fat. So, choose your foods intelligently to limit your overall intake of fat and consequently calories.

Be mindful of the portion size

 Although you might be tempted to taste the juicy, mouth-watering meat, hold yourself back. The kidneys and the liver might be negatively impacted by consuming a lot of protein. Additionally, your body needs time to metabolize the protein, so consuming too much of it can exhaust your system. Problems including acid reflux, motion sickness, and upset stomach may then result.

On a joyous occasion like Eid-ul-Adha, it can be a little frustrating to hold yourself back. After all, everyone is allowed to celebrate occasionally. In order to maintain your health throughout Eid, do not deprive yourself but rather indulge in a little bit of everything.

The mealtimes

Because Eid is all about socialising and meeting new people, schedules are often busy. Everyone’s home requires you to stop over and enjoy their hospitality. You must indulge the guests (and yourself!) with the meat offerings, sweets, and beverages. However, because you don’t give yourself enough time in between meals, this raises the risk of overeating. Since social gatherings frequently go late, it is worse when you find yourself eating at unusual hours.

It may be challenging, but you must space your meals by at least 6 hours. Before you eat more, give your body some time to digest the previous serving. You might have to decline some delectable kebabs, but you’ll appreciate it afterwards. Additionally, make an effort to reduce your caloric intake, particularly at night when your body is at rest.

Proper meat handling

The safe handling of the meat is an important principle to follow to stay healthy during Eid. Remove any visible fat from your meat and carefully clean it. Additionally, make sure the meat is thoroughly drained before being stored.

You should also be aware of the heat since Eid-ul-Adha falls right in the heart of summer in 2022. The meat can spoil if it is left outside for an extended period of time. Similarly, if your refrigeration is not operating properly, there is a potential that the meat will no longer be safe to eat.

Your health could be at risk if you eat meat that is contaminated or improperly cleaned.

Add some vegetables to the dish

Even though Eid-ul-Adha is simply known as meaty Eid, you do not necessarily have to apply that literally. If you want to stay healthy during Eid-ul-Adha and enjoy it, it’s not a good idea to restrict your diet to only proteins.

So, include wholesome foods like vegetables in the mix. Prepare stir-fried vegetables, grill or broil some alongside the meat. By consuming these wholesome vegetables with the meat, you are supplying your body with the fiber it needs. The fiber also helps to avoid heartburn in addition to constipation, which is inevitable if all you eat is meat.

Fiber offers the diet more bulk, which makes you feel more satisfied. As a result, it aids in preventing overstuffing. Additionally, the classic pairing of meat and veggies is one that, when done well, results in a delicious supper.

Avoid fried foods and soft drinks

You might be tempted to fry the beef pate to create a truly fantastic burger, but resist the desire. Though fresh meat is already hefty, frying it makes the flesh even heavier due to the added fat. It gets more calorically dense and is, therefore, more difficult for your body to process.

Stick to alternate methods of preparing meat instead of regretting the time you choose to fry the meat and experiencing epic amounts of heartburn. The enjoyment of eating fried meatballs may only last a short while, but the weight they will make you gain will take a lot of work to lose. So, exercise caution.

The cool colas and other chilly soft beverages can be tempting, especially after a particularly spicy meaty bite. These soft drinks are calorie-dense, though. They contain a lot of sugar, particularly liquid sugar, which is significantly riskier for the body. Adding soft drinks to the festivities is a terrible idea because we frequently overeat during the Eid celebrations.

Avoid overeating

Exercise some restraint if you don’t want to spend the Eid celebrations grabbing at your stomach or sobbing on the bathroom floor. The consumption of excessive amounts of red meat in a short period of time might have serious negative effects on your health.

Overindulging in red meat might result in food poisoning, nausea, acid reflux, stomach pain, or pangs. Particularly in those who already have GI disorders, overeating may result in more gastric troubles. Many people have the potential to become ill.

Workout, in an enjoyable way

It is true that it is challenging to get motivated to exercise during the holidays. However, it is advised that you get some exercise, but in a pleasurable way, if you want to digest all those heavy meals and avoid putting on weight during the days of Eid.

Try playing games while barbecuing or having a picnic with your friends and families. Cycling, bouncing a ball around, and engaging in light sports chit-chat with pals are a few great ways to get in some workout. You won’t even notice that you’re exercising!

Conclusion:

Because of summer, our body needs more water to combat the heat. Dehydration is another possibility that increases when conditions like diarrhea or vomiting are present. Make sure to keep your portion sizes in check and avoid overeating. Seek prompt medical attention if you experience gastrointestinal problems.

Dn.Saqib Iqbal is CEO and Co-Founder of SDNO. He is a social worker, having his own non-profit organization (H.E.L.P Philantropy) for this cause. He is also a good writer and photographer. His leadership skills go beyond the limits. He can be reached at @diet_by_smarty.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Micronutrients Nutrition Vitamins

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Whenever it comes to vitamins, there is something which every person knows in common. The fact that vitamins are good for human health, and that vitamins should be an essential part of a person’s diet and life. The same is about vitamin b6. This article would explore the importance of vitamin b6, the benefits of taking it, how much kids need each day, potential risks associated with taking too much or too little, and tips for ensuring that your kids are getting enough of this important nutrient.

What is Vitamin B6

This vitamin is considered to be an important vitamin for brain development and for ensuring the health of the human nervous system and immune system healthy. Another name for vitamin B6 is pyridoxine. Vitamin b6 is one of the B vitamins, which are essential for the health of the human body. Vitamin b6 is basically a water-soluble vitamin that is found in many natural foods and is found in a number of dietary supplements as well.

Benefits of Vitamin B6

Vitamins are essential products for our health. Our body needs different vitamins properly so that it can do its work good. The main role of vitamin b6 which is verified by medical research is that the main role of this vitamin is the prevention of diseases. One of the primary benefits of vitamin b6 is that it is considered to be the most effective medication for the treatment of nausea that occurs during pregnancy. However, in such cases, vitamin b6 supplements or medications should be used under the instructions of certified physicians.

Some other benefits of vitamin b6 are discussed below

  1. Cardiovascular Diseases:

People having high homocysteine levels are often seen suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Studies show that high homocysteine levels promote stroke and heart diseases in people, as it helps in creating clots in the bloodstream of the human body. The deficiency of vitamin B6 can increase the homocysteine level in the body while ingesting the recommended amount of homocysteine in the body can prevent cardiovascular diseases to occur in the body.

  1. Cognitive Functions:

Vitamin b6 helps in better cognitive functions in the body. For instance, it indirectly helps in better functioning of the brain by lowering the homocysteine level in the body, which eventually prevents severe diseases which include Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In short, vitamin b6 plays a role in enhancing memory and improves the functions of the brain.

 

  1. Cancer:

Studies show that vitamin b6 is considered to be an effective element that prevents cancer. Since the treatment of cancer has not been yet clinically proven, so this is not sure if vitamin b6 plays a role in the treatment of cancer or not, but it is proven that it does happen to be an effective element that helps in the prevention of cancer.  It does in such a way that it reduces the spread of tumor cells in the body.

How much vitamin B6 is necessary for the body?

According to the National Library of Medicine, the recommended dietary amount (RDA) of vitamin B6 in different age groups is as follows:

  • Infants up to age group 1-3 years need 0.5 mg per day
  • Children up to the age of 4-8 years need 0.6 mg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 9-13 years need 1.0 mg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 14-18 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 9-13 years need 1.0 mg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 14-18 years need 1.2 mg per day
  • Adults (men) up to the age of 19-50 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Adults (women) up to the age of 19-50 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (men) up to the age of more than 50 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (women) up to the age of more than 70 years need 1.7 mg per day

Food Sources

Some of the foods high in vitamin b6 are:

  • Beef liver
  • Tuna
  • Salmon
  • Fortified cereals
  • Chickpeas
  • Poultry
  • Some vegetables and fruits, especially dark leafy greens, bananas, papayas, oranges, and cantaloupe

Signs of Deficiency

Alike other vitamins, the deficiency of vitamin b6 is also responsible for a number of diseases. These diseases include

  • Microcytic anemia
  • Skin conditions
  • Depression
  • Confusion
  • Lowered immunity
  • Kidney disease
  • Autoimmune intestinal disorders like celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease
  • Autoimmune inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis
  • Alcoholism

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Nutrition Diet Types Health Knowledge Trending Diets

A Trending Approach Towards Ketogenic Diet

Everything changes over time with a person’s needs and requirements. A human body varies its basic systems according to the external environment. Due to the rapid changes in the background, there are also some new trends in people’s diet, or we could say that there are so many options for an average person and people suffering from diseases, etc. One of the trending topics in the category of food and diet after intermittent fasting is the keto diet.

The Keto diet or commonly referred to as a low-carb and high-fat diet. According to the Harvard School of Public Health, the amount of carbohydrates in the keto diet is less than 50 grams per day, 50-80% fat from daily calories, 10-20% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrates. Protein in the ketogenic diet is kept in moderation relative to low carbs because protein can prevent ketosis.

A ketogenic diet was discovered to treat children with epilepsy. Over time, it has been used for weight loss and to treat many other diseases, but it is a symbol of fashion for the most part. When someone knows about the keto diet or uses it without knowing its downsides, people admire that person so much that it sometimes seems odd to us that a person could eat a balanced diet without every nutrient.

Types of Keto Diet

There are several types of keto diet including:

  • Standard Keto Diet
  • Very Low Carb Diet
  • Well-Formulated Keto Diet
  • MCT Keto Diet
  • Reduced Calorie Keto Diet
  • Cyclic Ketogenic Diet
  • Targeted Ketogenic Diet
  • High Protein Ketogenic Diet

Standard Keto Diet 

According to research, a standard diet is moderately high in protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fats. The macronutrient distribution in this kind of keto diet revolves around 55-60% of fat, 30-35% of proteins, and 5-10% of carbohydrates per 2000 kcal day. The limit of carbohydrates is up to 20-50g per day.

Very Low Carbohydrate Diet 

A very carb diet is deficient in carbohydrates, the same as a standard diet. The term “Well Formulated Ketogenic Diet” comes from Steve Phinney, one of the leading researchers in ketogenic nutrition. The WFKD follows a plan similar to a standard ketogenic diet that focuses on the initiation of proteins and non-starchy vegetables in the diet. This diet limits the consumption of grains, legumes, bread, pasta, starchy vegetables, fruits, and in some cases nuts and seeds too., There are some categories of low-carb diets that allow minor quantities of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

The MCT Diet

The MCT keto diet is the same as the standard keto diet, but this diet primarily uses medium-chain triglycerides. But it also allows people to use a little more carbohydrate and protein. But MCT can cause diarrhea and constipation, so it should be cooked with mixed MCT and non-MCT foods. The foods that are high in medium-chain triglycerides are coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter and milk, yogurt, and cheese of various kinds. Among these, coconut and palm oils are the richest dietary sources.

Cyclic Keto Diet 

The cyclic keto diet involves the pattern of the standard keto diet for 5-6 days in a week followed by the high carb intake for 1-2 days in the same week. This cyclic keto diet reduces the symptoms of keto flu and has shown effectiveness in boosting athletic performance and promoting muscle growth.

Targeted Keto Diet 

The targeted keto diet divides the macronutrients in the ratio of 65-70% from fat, 20% from proteins, and 10-15% from carbohydrates. A targeted ketogenic diet involves consuming high carbohydrates on training days. It is based on the concept that carbohydrates consumed before or after physical exertion are processed much more efficiently since the energy needs of the muscles increase when we are active.

Foods You Can Eat on a keto diet

VEGETABLES

Zucchini

Cabbage                
Broccoli             
Eggplant      
Radishes
Green Beans             
Spinach                
Brussels            
Lettuce        
Mushrooms
Cauliflower             
Bell Peppers        
Celery             
Cucumber

FRUITS

Raspberries              
Blueberries                
Avocados              
Tomatoes         
Blackberries             
Lemons                     
Coconuts                
Olives

PROTEINS

Chicken                   
Beef                              
Salmon          
Mussels

Mackerel                 
Sardines         
Lamb            
Eggs               
Shrimp

Tuna                        
Venison

DAIRY

 

Full-fat milk                
Heavy Cream           
Full fat Cheese            
Cream Cheese             
Mascarpone              
Grass-fed Butter          
Ricotta                         
Cottage Cheese

Benefits of the Keto Diet 

The potential benefits of the keto diet can include:

  • It is beneficial to treat epilepsy
  • for the treatment of cancer patients. 
  • It is very beneficial for weight loss.
  • Type 2 diabetics can also use the keto diet. 
  • It reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome and its associated disease. 
  • Some research has shown that the keto diet reduces the risks of Alzheimer’s diseases.

Disadvantages of the Keto Diet 

Several disadvantages of the keto diet are: 

  • One can have nutrient deficiencies due to the keto diet.
  • It’s not good for gut health.
  • Keto Diet Can Cause Keto Flu etc.

Laraib Zahra is a nutritionist and blog writer. She also creates meal plans according to individuals’ specific needs and requirements. She can be reached at @nutritiouslifestyle5.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Micronutrients Nutrition Vitamins

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients required by our body. Vitamins are divided into fat and water-soluble vitamins for the proper maintenance and regulation of metabolic pathways. Vitamins are not readily produced in the human body so they are required in the appropriate amount on daily basis through dietary sources. In this guide, we will discuss vitamin B2, its sources and risk factors behind its deficiency, and its benefits for the human body.

What is Vitamin B2?

Vitamin B2, also known as Riboflavin, the active form of which is found in food products and in certain dietary supplements. It is among one of those “8 B” vitamins which are found in the body, which work in order to convert the food (Carbohydrates) into fuel (Glucose) so that the amount of energy needed for a person to do daily activities can be completed by the body.

Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, and plays an essential role in metabolizing the body fat and proteins. The most amount of this vitamin is not usually stored in the body, and has to be utilized immediately, so the excessive vitamin is excreted from the body in the form of urine. Also, presence of excessive riboflavin in the body causes the color of the urine to turn dark yellow.

Benefits of vitamin B2

Vitamins are essential products for our health. Our body needs different vitamins properly so that it can do its work good. One of the many benefits of having vitamin b2 in the body is that it helps the body to turn the food into energy. Some other benefits of vitamin b2 are listed below:

  1. Helpful for proper growth

Vitamin B2 is helpful for proper growth and maintaining the overall good health of a person. Vitamin B2 known as riboflavin is required for the proper breakdown of macronutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats for energy production. It is required in the development and functioning of skin cells. Riboflavin is required during the production of the lining of digestive tract, blood cells, and other organs in the body.

  1. Good for eye health

Vitamin B2 is important for maintaining eye health. It is a necessary component that protects the antioxidant glutathione in the eye, The National Library of Medicine claims that a diet rich in riboflavin lowers the risk of development of eye disorders like cataracts. Supplementation is helpful in this aspect to compensate for the needs of riboflavin.

  1. Helpful for absorption of other vitamins

Riboflavin is required for maintaining certain levels of other vitamins, minerals and chemicals in our bloodstream. Riboflavin is required for the conversion of vitamin B6 and Vitamin B9 in the body for proper usage. Vitamin B2 is necessary for the proper usage and processing of iron in the body. Without its proper usage, body is more prone to development of anemia. Riboflavin also reduced the levels of homocysteine in the blood.

Deficiency of Vitamin B2

When the needs of the body are not fulfilled from the dietary sources, various signs are symptoms are shown by the body. These specific signs and symptoms indicate the deficiency of nutrients and can be fulfilled through diet and supplements. Some of the signs and symptoms that indicate a vitamin B2 riboflavin deficiency are:

  • Cracks at the corners of the mouth known as angular cheilitis
  • Dry mouth and cracked lips
  • Dry skin
  • Inflammation of the tongue and lining of the mouth
  • Red lips and sore throat
  • Accumulation of fluids in the mucous membranes
  • Iron-deficiency anemia

Causes of vitamin B2 deficiency

There are various causes behind the deficiency of vitamin B2. Some of them are enlisted below:

  1. Poor nutrition

Lack of nutrients and inappropriate dietary sources in daily routine can lead to the deficiency of vitamins, especially vitamin B2. Vitamin B2 is mostly present in the food sources from meat group, dairy and dairy products, and fortified food products enriched with vitamin B2.

  1. Chronic disorders

There are various chronic and metabolic disorders that can lead to the deficiency of nutrients due to various factors. The intake of medicines according to the metabolic disease can lead to drug-nutrient interaction and hinders the absorption of vitamins in the body.

  1. Malabsorption

The malabsorption of food and nutrients in the body can lead to the cause of vitamin B2 deficiency. Malabsorption can be due to many problems like liver and kidney disease. Excessive intake of alcohol is also responsible for lower absorption of nutrients in the body. Blood filtration processes like hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are also a hindrance to the absorption of nutrients.

Risk factors of vitamin B2 deficiency

The deficiency of vitamin B2 can be seen due to numerous factors including alcoholism, poor diet, liver and kidney disorders, age factors, and chronic illness. Here we will discuss some major groups of people who are more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency:

  1. Vegetarian athletes

Athletes who are involved in hard and strenuous exercises require extra vitamins and nutrients to meet their needs of the body. During exercise, all the stored nutrients especially riboflavin are used up. Additional riboflavin is required to avoid the deficiency. The deficiency of riboflavin is common in vegetarian athletes as the major dietary source of riboflavin is animal-based protein sources.

  1. Pregnant and lactating mothers

Pregnant and lactating mothers who are already malnourished are more prone to deficiency of vitamins, especially B2. Pregnant women who do not consume enough dietary sources of animal-based proteins like beef or chicken have a higher risk of vitamin B2 deficiency. This can place birth defects in the infants and have disastrous consequences during the lactation period.

  1. Vegetarians

Vegetarians are more prone to deficiency of vitamin B2 as these people avoid consuming meat and meat-based products. Meat is the best source of riboflavin having a substantial amount in it. Vegetarians rely on vegetables and plant-based sources of food for their meals. Plant-based products are not that loaded with vitamin B2 so vegetarians can face its deficiency.

  1. Riboflavin transport deficiency

Riboflavin transport deficiency is a neurological disorder that can occur between infancy and young adulthood. A person faces respiratory and hearing difficulties due to this disease. There is a genetic mutation of riboflavin transporters in which a person is not able to absorb or transport the riboflavin thus leading to its deficiency. A person suffering from such a problem should follow a proper diet comprising the food sources of vitamin B2 to avoid serious symptoms.

Side effects of Vitamin B2 deficiency and consequences of long-term deficiency

Long-term deficiency of vitamin B2 can lead to serious heart issues, brain disorders, and some cancers too. There are no special side effects of vitamin B2 consumption but its long-term deficiency can be fatal. A person has a higher chance of migraines and cardiovascular diseases. The amount of vitamin B2 consumption should be kept according to the RDA per person as it can result in toxicity. The GI tract of human beings is capable to absorb the nutrients up to a specific limit.

How much Vitamin B2 is required?

This is a common question that is often asked by concerned parents whether the vitamin is safe for their kids to ingest or not. The answer to this is, yes, vitamin b2 is good for kids without a doubt. The reason for this is that vitamin b2 is usually found in a lot of food items that are given to children as a healthy diet in routine. Also, because of the reason that vitamin b2 is an important ingredient for the making of red blood cells in children. So the more amount of vitamin b2 is absorbed by the children, the higher would be the number of red blood cells in them.

According to the National Library of Medicine, the recommended dietary amount (RDA) of vitamin B2 in different age groups is as follows:

  • Infants up to age group 1-3 years need 0.5 mg per day
  • Children up to age of 4-8 years need 0.6 mg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to age of 9-13 years need 0.9 mg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to age of 14-18 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to age of 9-13 years need 0.9 mg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to age of 14-18 years need 1.0 mg per day
  • Adults (men) up to age of 19-70 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Adults (women) up to age of 19-70 years need 1.1 mg per day
  • Older adults (men) up to age of more than 70 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (women) up to age of more than 70 years need 1.1 mg per day

Sources of vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 called riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that is flushed out daily from the body either in the form of urine, sweat, or through other secretory glands. There are various food sources through which this vitamin can be ingested. Some of the main dietary sources of vitamin B2 are as follows:

  • Eggs and animal-based protein sources like chicken, beef, and organ meats
  • Vegetables like Brussel sprouts, broccoli, mushrooms, and leafy green vegetables
  • Vitamin-enriched bread and cereals including wheat germ
  • Nuts, molasses, and wild rice
  • Legumes and beans like lima beans, peas, and navy beans
  1. Protein sources

The plant and animal-based protein sources are full of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Vitamin B2 is available in appropriate amounts in animal-based protein sources like beef, chicken, and organ meats including liver and kidney. The amino acid tryptophan is converted to amino acids through the help of vitamin B2 and is available in animal-based protein sources. Eggs that are a good source of proteins are also enriched with vitamin B2.

  1. Vitamin-enriched bread and cereals

Bread and cereals from whole grain sources are full of nutrients, dietary fiber, and minerals. There are various fortified cereals and bread available in the market that are enriched with vitamin B2 to fulfill the needs of the population through dietary sources instead of supplementation.

  1. Vegetables

Green-leafy vegetables like lettuce, spinach, and cabbage are packed with essential nutrients and vitamins. Spinach is one of the best sources of iron and water-soluble vitamins. Other than this, mushrooms, broccoli, and Brussel sprouts are also an excellent source of vegetables providing vitamin B2 to the body.

  1. Legumes and beans

Legumes and beans being the plant sources of proteins are also packed with excellent nutrients to fulfill the demands of the body. Lima beans, pinto beans, and peas are excellent dietary sources of water-soluble vitamins and dietary fiber.

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Nutrition

Why is Water so Important?

Is water really important for your body? Yes! Water is ranked second only to oxygen as an important component of life, according to experts. This component accounts for a significant share of your body weight and performs a variety of critical activities, including removing waste from the body, regulating body temperature, and assisting brain function.

The majority of your daily water intake comes from liquids, but food also provides a small amount.

  1. It aids in saliva production

Saliva contains a lot of water. Saliva also contains electrolytes, mucous, and enzymes in modest amounts. It’s necessary for breaking down solid foods and maintaining oral health.

When you drink enough water, your body generates adequate saliva. However, as you become older or take certain medications or therapies, your saliva production may decrease.

  1. It maintains your body temperature

Maintaining your body temperature requires staying hydrated. During physical exercise and in heated situations, your body loses water through sweat.

Sweat keeps your body cool, but if you don’t replace the water you lose, your body temperature will rise. That’s because when you’re dehydrated, your body loses electrolytes and plasma.

If you’re sweating more than normal, make sure to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.

  1. It safeguards your tissues, spinal cord, and joints

Water keeps your joints, spinal cord, and tissues lubricated and cushioned. This will allow you to enjoy physical exercise while also reducing the pain caused by illnesses such as arthritis.

  1. It aids in waste excretion via perspiration, urination, and defecation

Water is used by the body to sweat, pee, and pass bowel movements. Sweat helps to keep your body temperature in check whether you’re exercising or in hot weather. Water is required to replace the fluids lost via sweating.

To have a healthy stool and avoid constipation, you also need enough water in your system.

Your kidneys are also responsible for removing waste from your body through urination. Adequate water intake aids in the proper functioning of your kidneys and the prevention of kidney stones.

  1. It aids in the improvement of physical performance

During physical activity, athletes might sweat up to 10% of their body weight, so, it is critical to drink plenty of water. Your strength, power, and endurance are all affected by hydration.

If you engage in endurance training or high-intensity sports like basketball, you may be more susceptible to the consequences of dehydration.

Exercise in the heat without adequate hydration can result in dangerous medical issues such as low blood pressure and hyperthermia. Seizures and even death can result from severe dehydration.

  1. It aids in the prevention of constipation

Constipation can be avoided in a variety of ways, not just by eating fiber. It’s also critical to maintain your water consumption so that your bowel movements are well hydrated.

Constipation is more common if you don’t get enough water, magnesium, or fiber in your diet.

If you’re already constipated, consuming carbonated water in addition to plain water may help alleviate your symptoms.

  1. It aids in digestion

Experts affirm that drinking water before, during, and after a meal will assist your body break down the food you eat more easily, contrary to popular belief. This will aid in your digestion and allow you to get the most out of your meals.

The body adapts to variations in the composition of food and stomach contents, whether they are more solid or liquid, according to research.

  1. It aids in the absorption of nutrients

Water not only aids in the digestion of food, but it also aids in the dissolution of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. The vitamin components are subsequently delivered to the remainder of your body for usage.

  1. It aids with weight loss

Drinking water has been linked to body fat decrease and weight loss in both overweight girls and women in studies. While dieting and exercising, drinking more water may help you shed some pounds.

  1. It enhances the flow of oxygen in the blood

Water transports essential nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. Meeting your daily water requirements will improve your circulation and benefit your overall health.

  1. It aids in the prevention of illness

Constipation, kidney stones, exercise-induced asthma, urinary tract infection, and hypertension are all illnesses that can be avoided by drinking adequate water.

Water also aids in the absorption of essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients from your diet, increasing your chances of staying healthy.

  1. It aids in the production of energy

Water can help to speed up your metabolism. An increase in metabolism has been linked to an increase in energy levels.

According to one study, drinking 500 milliliters of water increased metabolic rate by 30% in both men and women. These effects seemed to last for more than an hour.

  1. It aids in cognitive function

Maintaining optimal cognitive health necessitates adequate hydration. According to studies, not getting enough water might affect your focus, alertness, and short-term memory.

  1. It aids in the improvement of mood

Water deficiency can also have a negative impact on your mood. Dehydration can cause weariness, disorientation, and even anxiety.

  1. It aids in the maintenance of healthy skin

Drinking enough water will keep your skin moisturized and may even encourage collagen development. However, drinking water alone isn’t enough to slow down the aging process. This process is linked to your genes as well as your overall sun protection.

  1. It prevents overall dehydration

Dehydration is caused by a lack of water in your body. Dehydration is hazardous since water is essential for so many biological functions.

Severe dehydration can lead to a variety of serious problems, including brain swelling, kidney failure, and seizures.

To avoid dehydration, make sure you drink enough water to replace what you lose via sweat, urine, and bowel movements.

Replenish water in your body

  • Stick to plain water. Add a lemon or lime slice to the mix. Drink flavored water that has 0 or few calories.
  • Consume foods that are high in water, such as cucumbers, watermelon, and other melons, lettuce, celery, grapes, oranges, bell peppers, broccoli, and tomatoes.
  • Consume low-fat milk.
  • In a blender, combine ice and fruit to make a slushy, cool, and pleasant drink.
  • Decaffeinated beverages should be consumed. Caffeine is a diuretic, meaning it causes you to urinate more frequently.
  • Keep a water bottle with you at all times, in the car, at home, and at work.
  • When dining out, ask water.

Final Tip:

You shouldn’t wait until you’re thirsty to drink water; you could already be dehydrated. Thirst is frequently a sign that body fluid levels are far below what they should be for optimal performance.

Before you are thirsty or have a dry mouth, drink some water.

Dn.Saqib Iqbal is CEO and Co-Founder of SDNO. He is a social worker, having his own non-profit organization (H.E.L.P Philantropy) for this cause. He is also a good writer and photographer. His leadership skills go beyond the limits. He can be reached at @diet_by_smarty.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Micronutrients Nutrition Vitamins

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamins and minerals are an essential part of our daily life. Our body is not able to perform its various metabolic processes without vitamins. These are the micronutrients that are required in a specific amount for proper functioning of various processes in the body. Vitamins are divided into fat soluble and water soluble vitamins. Here our guide will help you explore about the benefits of vitamin B1, its potential risk factors, daily recommended amount and major dietary food sources to avoid its deficiency in the body.

What is vitamin B1?

Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin that is required by the body for various functions. It is necessary for the nervous system and supports heart health. Vitamin B1 provides antioxidant support to the people and is necessary for energy production in the body being an essential component in glucose production.

Our body cannot directly produce vitamin B1 itself, so it is found in various food sources like fortified breakfast cereals, commercial bread varieties and yogurt, some varieties of beans and seeds like black beans and sunflower seeds, enriched white rice and corn, meat sources like trout and pork. Human body cannot store vitamin B1 as it is water-soluble so it should be ingested on daily basis.

What are the benefits of taking vitamin B1?

Vitamins are essential products for our health. Our body needs different vitamins properly so that it can do its work good. One of the many benefits of vitamin b1 in the body is that it helps the body to turn the food into energy. Some other benefits about vitamin b1 are listed below:

  1. Boosts energy production

Vitamin b1 when absorbed into the human body, works as a booster for energy production. When it gets mixed in nutrients which contain sugar, it becomes a booster which helps the enzymes in the body to do their work faster, and also acts as an energy producer.

Vitamin B1 is helpful in the process of energy production and is an essential component in this aspect. The main principal source of energy for human beings is glucose. It is a carbohydrate sugar that is produced in response to ATP production and is the main source of fuel for the body. Vitamin B1 helps in the oxidization of the sugar before its usage in the body. Vitamin B1 is required as an essential component in the mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase system for glucose production.

  1. Reduces sepsis

Sepsis is a response to any infection caused in the body, and can also lead to fatal results if the body becomes deficient of vitamin b1. Vitamin b1 helps in reducing the risk of kidney and liver diseases which are caused by sepsis. Kidney and liver disorders can lead to increased risk of edema, numbness and tingling of hands and legs increasing the risk of sepsis. Vitamin B1 is helpful in controlling the sepsis production.

Doses of vitamin b1 are often prescribed to people who are going through nerve pain, in people who are going through severe diseases such as diabetes and kidney issues, and it also contributes positively as it reduces the need of taking pain killers.

  1. Provides antioxidant support

Vitamin B1 is considered as one of the strong antioxidants that is helpful in controlling the oxidation rate in the body and helps body fight against free radicals and oxidants. This antioxidant nature is helpful in managing the age-related symptoms that are due to free-radical production.

Studies prove that vitamin b1 works as a mood booster for people who are undergoing cases of depression or similar problems. It has been seen that people with deficiency of vitamin b1, are seen with low energy and low mood levels.

  1. Supports the nervous system

Vitamin B1 is a supportive component for the nervous system. It plays an essential part in improving the memory functioning in human beings and supports the nervous system. Vitamin B1 supports the maintenance of myelin sheath that is the covering of neurons. Neurons are the nerve cells of our brain that are covered with myelin sheath on their axon region. The myelin sheath is necessary for conducting nerve impulse. Vitamin B1 maintains the myelin sheath and supports nerve cells.

Thiamine, plays a vital role in improving the memory function of the human brain. Due to this characteristic, thiamine is also called “morale vitamin”.

  1. Supports the heart health

Vitamin B1 is a supportive water-soluble vitamin for maintaining the heart health. It is helpful in controlling the condition of tachycardia. bradycardia and arrhythmia. The unusual and irregular levels of heart beat are often caused due to deficiency of vitamins. The proper levels of vitamin B1 helps in maintaining the normal heart rhythms.

Sources of Vitamin B1:

Vitamin B1 is can be consumed through various dietary sources. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Breads and cereals group

Vitamin B1 being a water soluble vitamin is not made by the human body so it is required through dietary sources to compensate its deficiency. The best source of vitamin B1 and best form of vitamin B1 is the breads and cereals group in which whole-wheat sources are common. Whole-wheat breads, grains are cereals have higher amount of vitamin B1 especially in their wheat germ part. The husk of the wheat germ is loaded with essential nutrients, fiber and thiamine that are required by the body.

  1. Poultry and beef

Vitamin B1 is also available to some extent in the meat group like the poultry and beef. Thiamine is available in beef, poultry and organ meats like kidney and liver. It can ingested through these dietary sources in cooked form for their proper digestion and absorption to the cellular level.

  1. Nuts and legumes

Vitamin B1 can also be ingested through legumes, black beans and nuts like walnuts, almonds and cashews. Legumes and beans are the plant-based dietary sources of proteins that are also rich in the essential nutrients like thiamine, iron and folate. Beans are the important dietary component that is packed with various nutrients. Nuts are enriched with healthy oils like omega-six-fatty acids helpful for the body.

Some other dietary sources that ensure the availability of vitamin B1 in them are the bran and rice, brewer’s yeast, vegetables like potatoes and blackstrap molasses.

How much vitamin B1 is required?

Vitamin B1 is required in different amounts at different age group levels and there are best time to take vitamin B1:

  • Infants up to age group of 6 months require 0.3 mg of thiamine
  • Infants up to age group of 7 months-1 year require 0.4 mg of thiamine
  • Children up to age group of 3 years require 0.5 mg of thiamine
  • Children up to age group of 8 years require 0.6 mg of thiamine
  • Teenagers up to age group of 13 years require 0.9 mg of thiamine
  • Teenagers up to age group of 18 years require 1.3 mg of thiamine in males and 1.0 mg of thiamine of females
  • Adults up to age group of 19-50 years require 1.3 mg of thiamine in males and 1.1 mg of thiamine in females
  • Adults up to age group of 51+ years requires 1.3 mg of thiamine in males and 1.1 mg of thiamine in females

What are the causes of vitamin B1 deficiency?

Thiamine deficiency is common in the people who lacks the appropriate amount of consuming this nutrient through dietary sources. There are many causes and risk factors behind the thiamine deficiency. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Long-term use of alcohol

Alcohol is one of the main cause and hindrance in nutrient absorption in the body. People who are more prone to alcohol use or misuse it on long-term basis lacks the ability to properly digest it in their body.

  1. Age factor

Human body is capable of absorbing nutrients inappropriate amount to some extent in their different age group periods. The absorption rate of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals is lower specifically in children and older age group. The dietary preference and needs of people change as the age advances, so older age is also a risk factor behind lower levels of thiamine in the body.

  1. Elevated levels of blood sugar

Thiamine is an important factor in the glucose production mechanism and its proper use in the body. The deficiency of thiamine can lead to disturbed glucose and elevated levels of blood sugar in the body.

  1. Eating disorders

People suffering from eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are more prone to risk of thiamine deficiency. The anorexic patient is more prone to intake less food as they are conscious about their weight gain. This lack and lower intake of nutrients in the body can lead to deficiency of vitamin B1. Similarly, a patient of bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder is more prone to consume the fatty and junk foods that lack the proper amount of thiamine in them that can cause its deficiency.

  1. Long-term parenteral nutrition

Patients who are on IV-feeding and parenteral nutrition lacks the major nutrients in their diet that are not compensated through IV feeds. Short-term IV feeding might be not as much disastrous in terms of nutrient requirements. But long-term parenteral nutrition can cause deficiency of many vitamins and minerals especially the thiamine deficiency.

  1. Dialysis condition

Patients on the state of dialysis are more prone to deficiency of thiamine. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is absorbed readily in blood stream. Patients suffering from kidney disorders or getting treatment through dialysis are on less water intake that leads to poor absorption of thiamine.

Symptoms of Vitamin B1 Deficiency

Like every other vitamin, if vitamin b1 is not ingested in the human body in the proportion in which it should, there can be some problems in the human body. A deficiency of vitamin B1 causes:

  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea and vomiting

Some of the symptoms are discussed in detail below:

  1. Poor appetite

One of the common symptom other than discussed above is the poor or no appetite. Thiamine is helpful in providing the feeling of fullness as it is readily available in the food products like whole grains, cereals and fortified breads that can satisfy the satiety levels and prevents hunger. The inadequate stores of thiamine in the body can disrupt this process and person might not feel hunger and lacks appetite. After the replenishment of thiamine stores in the body, this issue is resolved easily.

  1. Fatigue

One of another common and observable symptom is the fatigue in the body. Fatigue and lack of motivation to do necessary tasks is often due to lack of essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals in which thiamine is worth-mentioning. Its deficiency can lead to fatigue as it is necessary for glucose pathway to produce energy.

  1. Irritability

Mood changes and irritability are often due to poor thiamine levels in the body. Thiamine is helpful in maintaining the levels of mood-hormones like serotonin and improves mood. Its deficiency can cause fatigue in the body and disrupts mood leading to irritability.

  1. Damage to nerve

Thiamine is important in maintaining the nerve health and neuron impulse. It helps in proper conduction of nerve impulse by maintaining the myelin sheath that is fat insulation on the axons of the neuron. Prolonged deficiency of thiamine triggers the poor nerve impulse and other conditions like neuropathy.

  1. Tingling sensations in arms and legs

The feeling of tingling and needle-like sensation in the arms and legs of the person is called as paresthesia. It is a symptom of thiamine deficiency and is a brain-related symptom. Thiamine is responsible for proper nerve impulse. Its deficiency is responsible for various nerve-related disorders in the body including the serious damage to peripheral nerves.

Side effects

There are no special evidences that can claim that too much levels of vitamin B1 can cause harm to the body. The U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns that too much supplemental use of vitamin B1 is not good for health. It is recommended to consume it according to the daily requirement of the body. The major sources of vitamin B1 should be from the dietary sources.

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Categories
Disease Food Knowledge Nutrition

Foodborne Illnesses and their Types

Do you know about food-borne illnesses?

About six Americans get sick from these types of illnesses according to the (CDC). Illness leads to complications if not managed properly. “Health promotion” consists of safe food and water supply. Investigation of outbreaks caused by foods is very important. The groups of foods have ingredients associated with concerns about the safety of food.  When new methods of producing foods are introduced then many outbreaks take place.

What are different types of common foodborne illnesses?

Let us talk about the illnesses, onsets, and durations.

Illness

Symptoms along with signs

Duration and onset

B. cereus

Watery (diarrhea) with vomiting

6-15 hrs. (after taking contaminants) and duration is 24 hours

   

C. jejuni

Bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramping

(2-5 days) after eating contaminants and duration is 2-10 (days)

   

Clostridium botulinum

Muscle paralysis, eyelids drop, dryness of mouth, infants are lethargic and constipated, and muscle tone is poor

In foodborne illness, symptoms generally begin 18-36 hours after eating contaminated food and the duration is days/months

   

Clostridium perferengens

Nausea/vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and diarrhea

Within 6-24 hrs. after eating the food contaminated with contaminants

   

Cryptosporidium parvum

Stools (watery), nausea, fever, and cramping

2-10 days (after eating food)

   

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

Diarrhea, fever (low-grade), and malaise

With high dose (infective) diarrhea can be induced within 24 hours

   

Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)

Painful (diarrhea)

Slow onset and duration is 5-10 (days)

   

Listeria monocytogenes (LM)

Fever (mild), vomiting, sepsis, febrile gastroenteritis, and headache

Onset 2-30 (days)

   

Norovirus

Gastroenteritis, abdominal cramping, chills, and aches in muscles

After eating contaminated food (24-48 hours), and can be 12 hours in some cases

   

Salmonella

Diarrhea, and cramping

After eating food (12-72 hours)

   

Shigellosis

Diarrhea, and stomach cramping

After eating contaminated food (12-48 hours)

   

Staphylococcus aureus

Nausea, retching, and prostration

Hours (1-6), and duration is (1-2) days

   

Streptococcus pyogenes

Red throat, tonsillitis, headache, vomiting, rhinorrhea, and rash

Days (1-3)

   

Vibrio vulnificus

Vomit, diarrhea, and mild illness

Gastroenteritis after 16 hours of eating food

   

Yersinia enterocolitica

Fever, diarrhea, right-sided abdominal pain, and appendicitis

After exposure (1-2) days

What are critical control points?

A strategy that is used to control foodborne illness. “Risk management” consists of evaluation, options assessment and implementation, monitoring, and then the review of the whole process. (HACCP) involves monitoring biological, chemical, and physical agents. It also monitors those critical points where control can be applied. So, it ensures proper food safety education which is necessary for all people involved in serving food to the population.  Adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control point (HACCP) regulation, food quality assurance programs, handling of freshly produce guidelines, technologic advances designed to reduce contamination, enhanced food supply regulations, and a greater emphasis on food safety education have contributed to a potential decline in illnesses caused by food.

 

What is the term “contamination” and is food and water safety important?

Precautions in the region of contaminants are very important. Many public water supplies, built using 20th-century technology, will need to invest more than one hundred and thirty-eight million dollars during the next 20 years for safe drinking water. Seafood is in contact with methyl-mercury. So, pregnant women need precautions in eating these kinds of plates of seafood. The dietetics professionals play an important role in spreading this kind of education. The (CFSAN) provides guidance and monitoring as well. On the other hand, we need to know the importance of food and water safety. We have to reduce pesticides, ensure safe food handling practices, reduce incidents and spreads of diseases with the administration of water, and reduce many environmental pollutants. The following are food and water safety resources:

  1. Agricultural Marketing Services, (USDA)
  2. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Duplicate
  3. The (CFSCAN)
  4. The (CDC)
  5. The (FEMA)
  6. Food Marketing Institute
  7. FoodNet
  8. Foundation for Food Irradiation Education
  9. International Food Information Council
  10. National Broiler Counsel
  11. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  12. National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation
  13. Produce Marketing Association
  14. S. Department of Agriculture
  15. S. Department of Education
  16. S. EPA _ Office of Ground and Drinking Water
  17. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

 

What is bioterrorism?

“A deliberate use of microorganisms to induce disease”. The seven foodborne pathogens are introduced by (CDC):

  • Tularemia
  • Brucellosis
  • Clostridium botulinum toxin
  • Clostridium perferengens toxin
  • Salmonella
  • coli
  • Shigella

Current surveillance networks are designed to detect foodborne illnesses. Food serves as a vector (a primary agent). So, rapid communication and analysis of disease are important.

 

What is meant by a healthy food system?

To serve the population is the main aim of community nutrition as a field. (ADA) in 2014, issued some standards of professional importance. This ensures to sustain this type of application of standards for a prolonged time. The system is built and nourished properly which ensures sustainability. The safety, as well as the quality of the food and water supply, are components that built sustainability.

Dietitian Zoya Faisal is a Gold medalist in Doctor of Nutrition and Sciences (UMT), and did her M.Phil in food and nutrition (UVAS), Pakistan. She can be reached at zoyazoya401@gmail.com

Doctor Awais Ibrahim Bajwa (MBBS), Mohiuddin Islamic Medical College, Pakistan, and clinical instructor in University of management and technology, Lahore campus. He can be reached at awais.ibrahim@umt.edu.pk

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

Sharing is caring