Health Food Food Habits Knowledge Nutrition

Dangers of Sugar to our Body

Sugar is a broad term that is used a lot in daily rituals. We are consuming sugar in large amounts, which is present in almost all food items. Fruits, vegetables, sugary drinks, candies, and all sorts of food items are packed with sugar. Some have minimal sugar, while others are loaded heavily with this component. Sugar is present in natural and artificial forms in food items. Natural sources of sugar, such as fruits and dairy products, have less detrimental effects on the body than the artificial sugars from beverages, sodas, and desserts. So the question arises: What are the dangers of eating sugar, and how can we deal with them?

The alarming statistics on sugar consumption and the effects of sugar claim that unacceptable levels of sugar in the body could disrupt the metabolic, hormonal, and physiological conditions of the body leading to the initiation of various ailments, including:

  • Heart diseases
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Cancers
  • Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
  • Osteoporosis

The term ‘natural sugar’ does not mean that it is overall a healthy item for our health. Raw sugar is present in all the food items we consume daily, including high-carb meals and high-glycemic-index foods that can cause sudden blood sugar spikes. Other than this, there are hidden sugars in packaged and processed foods that should be considered. All the names mentioned on packaged items like brown sugar, corn sweetener, cane sugar, lactose, rice sugar, molasses, maple syrup, and others are the hidden forms of sugar that leave the same effect on the body. We should keep an eye on our daily sugar intake for our body.

Sometimes the sugar levels are high in the body, and we cannot figure out the exact issue, so various tests are available to detect the root cause of symptoms. There are many dangers of consuming too much sugar. HbA1c is a test in which the amount of glucose attached to the hemoglobin (red blood cell) is checked. 

  • Diabetes
  • Eye disorders
  • Hypertension and raised blood glucose can lead to:
  • Hyper and hypoglycemia
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Ketoacidosis 
  • Cataract

The Carbohydrate model of Sugar & Metabolic syndrome

The carbohydrate model is related to sugar addiction and the increased urge to consume sugar in the body. Our 80% of food items are loaded with sugars in different forms like lactose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, etc. Processed foods include artificial conditions of sugar that can raise blood sugar levels. The number of carbohydrates we consume in the body is directly associated with the levels of blood sugars in the body. 

The end-product of carbohydrates is glucose which is also called simple sugar. Simple sugar is responsible for raising blood sugar levels in the body. The higher levels of blood sugar in the body are managed by the hormone insulin, which converts the excess sugar into fat and drives the glucose in cells. This whole mechanism does not provide a feeling of fullness, and the person feels less satiated, which triggers the hunger hormone, and the person ends up attaining pleasure from sweet tastes. 

The beginning of metabolic syndrome

We consume carbohydrates in more amounts than other food groups as our central calorie intake revolves around this macronutrient for energy production. The end product of carbohydrates that is glucose, is managed by insulin that forces extra sugar to be converted into body fat for later use. Over the years, when we keep adding sugar and excess carbohydrates through carbohydrate loading in the body, our cells lose the ability to use the sugar for energy through the mitochondrial process.

It raises the sugar level in the bloodstream to a toxic level and leads to glycation, inflammation, and associated disorders. This overcompensation of compounds causes insulin resistance in the body that leads to the provocation of various metabolic diseases like:

  1. Increase levels of fasting blood sugar
  2. Excess levels of insulin
  3. Obesity
  4. High levels of triglycerides
  5. Lower levels of HDL and higher levels of LDL
  6. High blood pressure



It is seen that the endurance of diabetes has widely prevailed all around the globe in the past few years. It is considered the cancer danger of sugar. Although there are many different reasons for diabetes in human beings, it is scientifically proven that excessive sugar intake in the body leads to diabetes. Again, obesity is a widely spreading disease caused due to excessive intake of sugar, and it leads to the occurrence of diabetes in human beings. Also, it is seen that with increased intake, sugar causes resistance in the working pattern of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone that is naturally produced in the human body, produced in the pancreas and works to regulate the blood sugar level in the human body. With resistance in the work pattern on the insulin hormone, the blood sugar level in the body rises and increases the risk for diabetes.



It is seen all over the globe that obesity is considered an alarming problem not only in adults but in people of all age groups, from children to people of older ages. One of the main factors which play a vital role in obesity is soft drinks. Different researches are conducted all over the globe which proves that people who love to drink fizzy drinks and other drinks which contain added sugar in them are seen to be suffering from obesity at a very high rate, as compared to other people who don’t tend to take soft drinks much often. The reason for this is that sweetened drinks are rich in a nutrient which is called fructose. The main function of fructose when it enters the human body is that it increases the urge to hunger, leading to an increase in appetite, eventually leading to obesity.



High sugar intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The reason is that it has been proved by several medical science researchers that high sugar intake causes obesity, which eventually leads to inflammation of the arteries and blood vessels, which further leads to chronic heart diseases that can cause the death of a person. Also, it has been seen that consuming too much sugar in diets and sweetened drinks can lead to a disease called atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by fatty, artery-clogging deposits. In short, diets rich in high sugar can cause a person to develop heart disease, which can eventually lead to the death of a person.



The leading cause of acne and breakouts on our skin is a diet rich in sugar and sweets. The raised level of blood sugar and insulin triggers the release of androgens which increases oil production and excretion of sebum on the skin, causing acne. Can you be allergic to sugar? Yes, you can be allergic to sugar leading to a disastrous form of acne.

Sugar is available in various forms in almost all types of foods. The difference between low and high glycemic index foods helps people keep their quantity in moderation. There are fewer chances of development of acne if a diet revolves around low glycemic index foods. 

Research has proved that a diet low in glycemic index foods helps the person maintain the sugar and carbohydrate levels in the body and improves the acne. Acne, breakouts, and increased sebum and oil production in the skin are more due to intake of oily foods, refined carbohydrates, and high-sugar beverages and sodas. 



Eating meals rich in sugar significantly increases the risk of cancer in people. The reason for this is that, again, eating a diet that is high in sugar increases obesity in people, which eventually disturbs the mechanism of the overall human body, which can then lead to fatal diseases such as cancer.



Wrinkles are a natural process that appears on the skin of human beings, which shows that the person’s age is increasing with time. Although it is a natural process, some factors either accelerate or decelerate the aging process. Consuming too much sugar or eating food that contains excessive sugar in them accelerates the aging process a lot. The mechanism for this is that a diet rich in sugar causes significant damage to elastin and collagen, due to which the skin loses its firmness; hence, wrinkles are produced on the face and skin. 

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Disease Food Habits Nutrition

Eating Disorders Types and Treatment

(EDs) means “persistent eating disturbance.” In other words, unhealthy eating habits to develop is known as eating disorders. Eating disorders are serious mental disorders. The patient may eat very less or the patient may eat a very large amount of food. Many people disengage from treatment. All the conditions including eating disorders are medical conditions. Heart and kidney issues arise and the patients may also suffer death. The causes of these disorders are vague. Some causes may include:

  • Genetic causes
  • Biological causes
  • Causes related to behavior
  • Psychological causes
  • Social factors

Symptoms may vary depending on the severity of the condition. In binge eating, the patient may eat a very large amount of meals. During binge periods, the patient may eat very fast. The patients may eat alone due to fear of embarrassment. Frequent dieting may be a characteristic of these patients. Throwing food or use of laxatives comes under symptoms of bulimia nervosa. Fasting is also a symptom of bulimia. In bulimia nervosa, sore throat is also present. Teeth become scary (decay). Gastro problems arise. Imbalance in electrolytes is also present. In anorexia nervosa, excessive exercise is a common symptom. There is a fear of gaining weight. Chronic health problems may also arise. Anemia is also present. Nails become brittle. The patients may present with fine hair over the body. Hypotension persists. Internal body temperature falls. Fatigue persists. The function of the heart becomes poor with organs malfunctioning. Some patients may also die of suicide. In severe circumstances, it can cause serious health problems and result in death if it is left untreated. We all should know the term that is diabulimia. It’s when people reduce taking insulin to lose weight.

Anorexia Nervosa (AN)

(two subtypes are: restrictive eating only and restrictive eating with purging)

Severity based on current body mass index in adults and body mass index percentiles in children. This condition is more common in industrialized countries. Genetic, physiologic, environmental, and temperamental factors are the major risk factors. Inefficiency in executive functioning is common in these people. Many changes occur during anorexia nervosa. Organs become damaged especially the heart, nervous system, and kidneys.

Bulimia Nervosa (BN)

(uncontrollable eating of food)

Self-induced vomiting, laxatives overuse, diuretics, the use of thyroid hormones, fasting, and overburdened exercise are the compensatory methods. There are the following levels of the condition: mild, moderate, severe, and extreme. It is found in women (2%) and men (0.5%). The diagnosis rate is 10-15% of cases. It is also prevalent in industrialized states. Genetic, physiologic, environmental, and temperamental factors are the major risk factors.

Binge Eating Disorder

(a clinical disorder; characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating)

Mild, moderate, severe, and extreme are the severity levels of the condition. It is more in women (3.5%) and men (2%). The rates are found in Caucasians, Asians, and Americans. There is no crossover between BED to other eating disorders. It has an official diagnosis.

Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (subclinical AN, BN, and BED)

This category is used in situations in which doctors select to communicate a particular reason.

Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder

This category is used in situations in which doctors select not to communicate the particular reason.

Avoidant or Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

(lack of interest in eating apparently)

There is weight loss. There is a need for oral nutrition supplements. The disease is not explained by a lack of available foods. This is not associated with any other adjacent medical condition.


(eating of nonfood substances)

Additional clinical attention is a need in the condition.

Rumination Disorder

(repeated regurgitation of food)

It is not associated with other complex medical conditions. Additional clinical attention is needed.










Anorexia nervosa


Disorders of anxiety

A range of brain abnormalities





Bulimia nervosa

Increased concerns regarding weight. Childhood physical abuse.

Reduction in self-esteem. Social anxiety problems/disorder.

Early pubertal maturation. Genetic vulnerability. 

(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)

(American Psychiatric Association 2013)


Treatment for eating disorders is done by doctors, nutritionists, therapists, and nurses. Individual or family psychotherapy is a treatment to change behavioral patterns. Nutritional counseling is also very potent. Anti-depressants are prescribed forms of medications. Some patients may need hospital treatment.


Dietitian Zoya Faisal is a Gold medalist in Doctor of Nutrition and Sciences (UMT), and did her M.Phil in food and nutrition (UVAS), Pakistan. She can be reached at [email protected]

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Female Health Food Food Habits Health Nutrition

Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy

What is pregnancy:

Pregnancy is the period during which a fetus develops inside a woman’s womb or uterus. Pregnancy usually lasts about 40 weeks, or a little over 9 months, from the last menstrual cycle through delivery. The three stages of pregnancy are referred to as trimesters by doctors.

First trimester (week 1 to week 12)

The first step toward pregnancy is conception, which occurs when a sperm penetrates an egg. Through the woman’s fallopian tube, the fertilized egg (called a zygote) goes to the uterus and implants itself in the uterine wall. A zygote is a group of cells that will develop into the fetus and placenta. The placenta connects the mother and the fetus, providing nourishment and oxygen to the latter.

Second trimester (week 13 to week 28)

  • You can normally find out your baby’s sex between the ages of 18 and 20, which is when ultrasounds are used to search for birth defects.
  • At 20 weeks, a woman may begin to feel movement.
  • The fetus has left imprints and fingerprints after 24 weeks, and it sleeps and wakes on a regular basis.

According to the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Neonatal Research Network, babies born at 28 weeks have a 92 percent chance of surviving, although those born at this time are more likely to have serious health issues such as respiratory and brain problems.

Third trimester (week 29 to week 40)

  • At 32 weeks, the bones are soft and nearly fully formed, and the eyes can open and close; preterm babies are those born before 37 weeks. Developmental delays, visual and hearing problems, and cerebral palsy are more common in these children. Babies born between 34 and 36 weeks of pregnancy are referred to as “late preterm.”
  • “Early term” refers to babies born in the 37th and 38th weeks of pregnancy, which were formerly considered term. These newborns are more likely to have health issues than those born at 39 weeks or later, which is currently considered full term.
  • Babies delivered at 39 or 40 weeks of pregnancy are considered full-term. Full-term infants have better health outcomes.

Nutrition during pregnancy:

The body goes through a lot of physical and chemical changes throughout pregnancy. To keep yourself and your growing child fueled, you’ll need to eat well from a variety of sources. Eating a well-balanced, healthy diet can make you feel good and provide you and your child with all you need. It’s critical that you obtain all of the vitamins and minerals you need because the food you eat is your baby’s primary source of nutrition.

Because you’re feeding a whole new person, your body’s nutritional needs increase throughout pregnancy. Although the old adage “eating for two” isn’t entirely accurate, you and your baby will undoubtedly need more vitamins and macronutrients.

Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that are only required in trace amounts in the diet.

Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories, or energy. We’re talking carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. You’ll need to eat more of each type of nutrient during pregnancy.


Carbohydrates meals help you feel satisfied without having too many calories and are a vital source of energy, several vitamins, and fiber. Bread, potatoes, breakfast cereals, rice, pasta, noodles, maize, millet, oats, yams, and cornmeal are some of the items on the list. Choose oven chips that are reduced in salt and fat if you’re having chips.

Over a third of your diet should consist of these foods. Choose wholegrain or higher-fiber alternatives like whole-wheat pasta, brown rice, or just leaving the skins on potatoes instead of refined starchy (white) foods.


Protein is required for the growth of a baby’s tissues and organs, including the brain. During pregnancy, it also assists in the development of breast and uterine tissue. It even helps to boost your blood supply, allowing you to give your child more blood. Your protein needs increase with each trimester of pregnancy. Protein consumption during pregnancy should be much higher than current recommendations. You’ll need 70 to 100 grams of protein each day, depending on your weight and trimester.


While it is true that some fats have negative health effects, others serve as a vital source of energy and aid in the body’s assimilation of specific nutrients. They can also supply essential fatty acids, which are necessary for the growth of your unborn child during pregnancy but which your body cannot produce.

Unsaturated fat called DHA is crucial for a baby’s brain and eye development. Aim for 200 mg of DHA per day for pregnant women. DHA is found in oily seafood like salmon and tuna.

Nutrient requirements during pregnancy:


Recommended        daily amount of intake



70 grams

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts.


1200 milligrams

Dairy products, leafy green vegetables, orange juice, and almonds


30 milligrams

Meat, fish, poultry, cereals, whole grain breads, legumes, leafy green vegetables, dried peaches, apricots and raisins.

Folacin (Folic Acid)

600 micrograms

Leafy green vegetables, legumes, whole grains, orange juice, asparagus.

Pyridoxine (B6)

1.9 milligrams

Wheat germ, meat, whole grains, cauliflower, bananas, avocados, peanuts, sunflower seeds, soybeans, and corn.


15 milligrams

The same foods that contain iron, in addition to oysters, wheat germ and brown rice.

  • Vitamin (A): Pregnant women need 770 micrograms of vitamin (A) per day.
  • Vitamin (C): The recommended daily amount of vitamin C during pregnancy increases to 85 milligrams
  • Vitamin (D): All individuals under the age of 70, including pregnant women and breastfeeding women, need 600 IUs per day

Fluid intake during pregnancy:

In addition to the fluids in juices and soups, you can get enough fluids by consuming several glasses of water each day. Discuss limiting your use of artificial sweeteners and caffeine with your healthcare provider.

Foods to eat:

  • Proteins: Lean meat (chicken, fish, lentils, etc.) is advised as a daily source of protein.
  • Carbohydrates are a type of carbohydrate that may be found in a variety of foods (such as bread, cereals, potatoes, rice, and pasta).
  • Obtaining fat from plant sources (such as olive oil) is preferred over saturated fats obtained from animal sources (like butter).
  • Dairy products that have been pasteurized: (such as Yogurt, milk, and cheese).
  • Vitamins and minerals are essential for good health.
  • There’s a lot of fiber in this.

Foods to avoid:

  • alcohol
  • excessive caffeine
  • raw meats and seafood
  • high-mercury fish
  • uncooked processed meats
  • unpasteurized dairy

Dietary supplements:

Good dietary supplements:

  • Iron: To prevent iron deficiency anemia in the mother and to aid in the transmission of more blood to the fetus so that it receives the most oxygen possible.
  • Folic acid is used to prevent the development of spina bifida in the fetus.

Harmful dietary supplements:

  • Vitamin A supplementation, whether in food or tablet form, should be avoided during pregnancy since it can harm the fetus.
  • Dietary supplements are insufficient to replace a nutritious diet.

How to overcome cravings and food aversions during pregnancy?

When you’re pregnant, you can develop an aversion to certain foods, which means you won’t like the smell or taste of them. Food cravings for one or more foods may also arise.

Pregnancy cravings

A hunger for a donut, Chinese food, or an unexpected culinary combo like pickles and ice cream can strike. It’s unclear why pregnant women have dietary aversions or urge. Hormones, on the other hand, are thought to play a part. It’s fine to indulge your cravings now and then, especially if they’re for foods that are part of a healthy diet. However, you should try to limit your intake of junk food and processed foods.

Pregnancy aversions

Food aversions, on the other hand, may only be a problem if they involve meals that are necessary for a baby’s development.


Pica is a disorder in which you have a desire for unhealthy meals. Pregnant women with pica may want to eat clay, cigarette ashes, or starch, among other strange foods. Pica during pregnancy could be a sign of a vitamin or mineral shortage.

Dn.Sadia Fatima is Director and Co-Founder of SDNO. She is a great nutrition entrepreneur and leader. Her actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more. She can be reached at @nutracare21_.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Food Habits Health Nutrition

Dietary Tips to Stay Healthy This Eid-ul-Fitr

With the holy month of Ramadan drawing to a close, Eid-ul-Fitr 2022, the most celebrated Muslim festival, is just around the corner. It’s a festive occasion that begins with unique Islamic prayers, which are often performed in a vast open field in the congregation. This event is celebrated around the world with much fanfare and gusto, with a variety of delectable dishes spread out for a feast. It’s natural to want to indulge in some tasty delicacies after a month of fasting. Keeping in mind what your body has been through, however, exercising prudence is as crucial. Can you withstand that much temptation? That is the key question here that might be asked too much.

The festival provides you with so many delicious dishes in one place that it’s difficult to say no. While there’s nothing wrong with eating those tiny winy bits, overindulging and consuming a large amount of food at once might cause serious harm to your body. Remember that your body has accustomed to the one-month Ramadan routine, and that a drastic change in this might be quite hazardous. You may get indigestion and, as a result, bloating. Consuming high-calorie foods can result in feelings of excessive guilt as well as undesired weight gain. These are, unfortunately, the perils of social gatherings, which constitute an important element of the auspicious celebration of Eid. While these gatherings are unavoidable, you can make sure that Eid 2022 is a pleasant and healthy one by following the guidelines below:

Breakfast on Eid:

You should get your body ready to have breakfast in the morning after a month of not doing so. On the first day of Eid, begin by doing the same things you did throughout Ramadan’s iftar fast. Eat dates and drink water before the Eid prayer and eat breakfast almost a couple of hours later.


It’s tempting to go overboard with the delectable sweets after a month of devotion and constraint. Slowly chewing each mouthful and focusing on the feel, taste, and feeling of each mouthful can help you get ready for the day.

Avoid Overeating:

Overeating can result in a variety of health issues. When you don’t keep track of how much you eat, you’ll wind up eating too much, which might cause indigestion and acidity. The less food you consume, the less likely you are to suffer from indigestion. Set some rules for yourself about what you’ll eat and how much you’ll eat before you start serving. This will aid in the prevention of overeating. Avoid piling food on your plate since you may feel obligated to consume it all so it doesn’t go to waste. Refuse second helpings politely.

Maintain Sugar Levels:

We all know that sugary treats should not be consumed in large quantities. On Eid, Muslims usually start the day by greeting one another and sharing sweets. Those treats, as much as we enjoy them, should be consumed in moderation. Sharing sweets with others is the best method to prevent overeating them.

Before you begin with the other treats, try some dried dates filled with walnuts or dried figs. This will also help you to satisfy your sweet desire without going overboard.

Minimum Salt Intake:

Keep an eye on how much salt you consume. Excess salt can be harmful to one’s health, particularly the heart, as it elevates blood pressure. Salt intake should be kept to a minimum. Try to keep the number of highly processed foods to a minimum. These foods are often high in salt, sugars and saturated fat. If you do purchase processed foods, read the labels carefully and choose healthier ones that include less of these ingredients.

Let Veggies Come First:

You’re probably wondering why I’m asking you to eat vegetables, even on Eid. Yes, indeed! Eating your vegetables first is the greatest approach to control and minimize your hunger. Veggies are high in critical nutrients and fiber, which will make you feel satisfied, allowing you to eat fewer high-calorie, fattening foods. Start your supper with a salad or stir-fried vegetables, and I’m confident your stomach will only ask for a small portion of stuff like achaar gosht and chicken karahi.

Drinking Aerated Beverages Isn't a Good Idea:

While it may appear to be a good idea to take an aerated drink with your dinner to help you digest the heavy food, the reality is quite different. Aerated beverages are high in sugar and are harmful to your health. For better digestion, consume a glass of buttermilk with mint leaves instead of a glass of cold beverage. Buttermilk will not only help you digest food better, but it will also help you eat less. So, which option should you take? A sugary beverage or a protein-rich beverage. My advice is to choose the latter and you will not be disappointed.

Drinking Water:

On this day, stay hydrated. The glycogen levels are all messed up after the strict 30-day diet. These levels will return to normal if you drink plenty of water. Drinking water is especially important after eating sweets since the kidneys utilize water to eliminate the sugar from the system. It will also make you feel fresh and energized throughout the day, allowing you to spend quality time with your family.

Leave the table once you’re done:

The objective and goal here is to fulfil your hunger while avoiding going crazy after seeing the huge selection of delights. Remember that when you’re full, it’s a sign that you’re close to finishing. When your stomach is no longer ready to accept food, it sends signals to your brain telling you to stop eating. Pay attention to your body’s signals and gently declare that you have thoroughly enjoyed the meal and have consumed your fair share of Eid treats. Leave the table as soon as you’re done; don’t linger.

Exercise Around The Block or Walk The Talk:

Yes, you read that correctly. You will feel rejuvenated, relaxed, and joyful after going for a walk or going for exercise. You’re probably wondering how?  A regular walk and exercise routine generates feel-good chemicals that improve your mood and aid in hunger control. Furthermore, these prevent diseases and make you feel more energized. On the eve of Eid, it’ll help you feel less guilty as you go digging into that plate of stuff like Mutton Biryani or Shahi Korma with Naan.


Enjoy this occasion with your loved ones to the utmost, and I wish you the best of happiness. Enjoy the treats, but remember the above guidelines to stay healthy this Eid.

Dn.Saqib Iqbal is CEO and Co-Founder of SDNO. He is a social worker, having his own non-profit organization (H.E.L.P Philantropy) for this cause. He is also a good writer and photographer. His leadership skills go beyond the limits. He can be reached at @diet_by_smarty.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Disease Food Knowledge Nutrition

Foodborne Illnesses and their Types

Do you know about food-borne illnesses?

About six Americans get sick from these types of illnesses according to the (CDC). Illness leads to complications if not managed properly. “Health promotion” consists of safe food and water supply. Investigation of outbreaks caused by foods is very important. The groups of foods have ingredients associated with concerns about the safety of food.  When new methods of producing foods are introduced then many outbreaks take place.

What are different types of common foodborne illnesses?

Let us talk about the illnesses, onsets, and durations.


Symptoms along with signs

Duration and onset

B. cereus

Watery (diarrhea) with vomiting

6-15 hrs. (after taking contaminants) and duration is 24 hours


C. jejuni

Bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramping

(2-5 days) after eating contaminants and duration is 2-10 (days)


Clostridium botulinum

Muscle paralysis, eyelids drop, dryness of mouth, infants are lethargic and constipated, and muscle tone is poor

In foodborne illness, symptoms generally begin 18-36 hours after eating contaminated food and the duration is days/months


Clostridium perferengens

Nausea/vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and diarrhea

Within 6-24 hrs. after eating the food contaminated with contaminants


Cryptosporidium parvum

Stools (watery), nausea, fever, and cramping

2-10 days (after eating food)


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

Diarrhea, fever (low-grade), and malaise

With high dose (infective) diarrhea can be induced within 24 hours


Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)

Painful (diarrhea)

Slow onset and duration is 5-10 (days)


Listeria monocytogenes (LM)

Fever (mild), vomiting, sepsis, febrile gastroenteritis, and headache

Onset 2-30 (days)



Gastroenteritis, abdominal cramping, chills, and aches in muscles

After eating contaminated food (24-48 hours), and can be 12 hours in some cases



Diarrhea, and cramping

After eating food (12-72 hours)



Diarrhea, and stomach cramping

After eating contaminated food (12-48 hours)


Staphylococcus aureus

Nausea, retching, and prostration

Hours (1-6), and duration is (1-2) days


Streptococcus pyogenes

Red throat, tonsillitis, headache, vomiting, rhinorrhea, and rash

Days (1-3)


Vibrio vulnificus

Vomit, diarrhea, and mild illness

Gastroenteritis after 16 hours of eating food


Yersinia enterocolitica

Fever, diarrhea, right-sided abdominal pain, and appendicitis

After exposure (1-2) days

What are critical control points?

A strategy that is used to control foodborne illness. “Risk management” consists of evaluation, options assessment and implementation, monitoring, and then the review of the whole process. (HACCP) involves monitoring biological, chemical, and physical agents. It also monitors those critical points where control can be applied. So, it ensures proper food safety education which is necessary for all people involved in serving food to the population.  Adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control point (HACCP) regulation, food quality assurance programs, handling of freshly produce guidelines, technologic advances designed to reduce contamination, enhanced food supply regulations, and a greater emphasis on food safety education have contributed to a potential decline in illnesses caused by food.


What is the term “contamination” and is food and water safety important?

Precautions in the region of contaminants are very important. Many public water supplies, built using 20th-century technology, will need to invest more than one hundred and thirty-eight million dollars during the next 20 years for safe drinking water. Seafood is in contact with methyl-mercury. So, pregnant women need precautions in eating these kinds of plates of seafood. The dietetics professionals play an important role in spreading this kind of education. The (CFSAN) provides guidance and monitoring as well. On the other hand, we need to know the importance of food and water safety. We have to reduce pesticides, ensure safe food handling practices, reduce incidents and spreads of diseases with the administration of water, and reduce many environmental pollutants. The following are food and water safety resources:

  1. Agricultural Marketing Services, (USDA)
  2. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Duplicate
  3. The (CFSCAN)
  4. The (CDC)
  5. The (FEMA)
  6. Food Marketing Institute
  7. FoodNet
  8. Foundation for Food Irradiation Education
  9. International Food Information Council
  10. National Broiler Counsel
  11. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  12. National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation
  13. Produce Marketing Association
  14. S. Department of Agriculture
  15. S. Department of Education
  16. S. EPA _ Office of Ground and Drinking Water
  17. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)


What is bioterrorism?

“A deliberate use of microorganisms to induce disease”. The seven foodborne pathogens are introduced by (CDC):

  • Tularemia
  • Brucellosis
  • Clostridium botulinum toxin
  • Clostridium perferengens toxin
  • Salmonella
  • coli
  • Shigella

Current surveillance networks are designed to detect foodborne illnesses. Food serves as a vector (a primary agent). So, rapid communication and analysis of disease are important.


What is meant by a healthy food system?

To serve the population is the main aim of community nutrition as a field. (ADA) in 2014, issued some standards of professional importance. This ensures to sustain this type of application of standards for a prolonged time. The system is built and nourished properly which ensures sustainability. The safety, as well as the quality of the food and water supply, are components that built sustainability.

Dietitian Zoya Faisal is a Gold medalist in Doctor of Nutrition and Sciences (UMT), and did her M.Phil in food and nutrition (UVAS), Pakistan. She can be reached at [email protected]

Doctor Awais Ibrahim Bajwa (MBBS), Mohiuddin Islamic Medical College, Pakistan, and clinical instructor in University of management and technology, Lahore campus. He can be reached at [email protected]

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Food Health Nutrition


Lack of deep sleep can have a major negative impact on your health. When you don’t get a good night’s sleep, you’ll feel sluggish and moody the next day. Some side effects of missing out on sleep include fatigue, an inability to focus, and overeating. Some studies have shown that lack of sleep can actually contribute to obesity since it increases your levels of cortisol, a stress hormone that makes you feel hungry during the day. If you get enough hours of sleep each night, you’ll be more focused and alert.

The Circadian Cycle

“You are what you eat” may be a buzzword, but it identifies the fact that nutrition is a backbone for health, providing the energy we need and other inputs that make the body function properly. The links between nutrition and obesity, diabetes, and heart health are well-known, but many people are unaware that their diet can also affect sleep.

As a general rule, a balanced diet is generally considered of a variety of vegetables and fruits which is able to provide the recommended daily intake of vitamins and nutrients, contributing to better sleep while promoting a healthy weight.

Because both sleep and nutrition are extremely complex and involve multiple interconnected systems of the body, it is challenging to conduct research studies that conclusively demonstrate a single diet that is best for sleep. Instead, what appears most important is that a person gets adequate nutrition without overconsuming unhealthy foods.

Growing evidence indicates that sufficient nutrient consumption is important for sleep. One large study found a lack of key nutrients, such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and K to be associated with sleep problems. While this research does not prove cause-and-effect, it supports the likelihood that diet affects hormonal pathways involved in sleep.

High Carbs Alert!

High-carbohydrate meals with high glycemic indexes can also affect one’s energy level and sleep quality. It has been well established that high-carbohydrate meals often can make you feel drowsy. High-carbohydrate meals can also impair your sleep quality. In fact, high carbohydrate intake has been shown to increase the number of awakenings at night and reduce the amount of deep sleep you get. It is not a surprise that frequent consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with poor sleep quality.

What to do for a better sleep?

For improving your sleep, add some of the foods in your routine and see the magic yourself!

Our ancestors got something…

A warm glass of milk before bed can help you sleep better. Besides the soothing sipping, milk contains tryptophan, an amino acid linked to better sleep.

Gotta grab your tryptophan!

There may be a link between tryptophan and serotonin, a chemical messenger that helps produce healthy sleeping patterns as well as boost your mood.

You can also get some tryptophan from bananas — which are rich in potassium, too. This is an important element to human health and a natural muscle relaxant as well. According to one study, potassium levels also play a role in sleep, with more benefiting slumber time.

Sleeping Beauty

Melatonin (a hormone produced in your body) is partially responsible for regulating a person’s circadian rhythm, or their sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin may also be effective in relieving sleeping problems.

Foods with naturally occurring melatonin include:

  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Grapes
  • Pistachios
  • Tomatoes
Magical Seeds

Pumpkin seeds, , contain  600 mg of tryptophan per 100g as well as good amount of zinc, both of which helps the brain turn tryptophan into serotonin which is the precursor to melatonin.

Pumpkin seeds are also rich in vitamin E, manganese, magnesium, protein, and iron. To get the biggest zinc benefits, eat the whole roasted seeds including the kernel and shell. The recommended serving size is about 1/4 cup.

Follow these, and you are good to go!

Here are some tips that you can follow to have a cozy good night sleep people!

  • Increase bright light exposure during the day
  • Blue light tricks your body into thinking its daytime. There are several ways you can reduce blue light exposure in the evening.
  • Caffeine can significantly worsen sleep quality, especially if you drink large amounts in the late afternoon or evening.
  • Reduce irregular or long daytime naps
  • Try to sleep and wake at consistent times
  • Optimize your bedroom environment
  • Don’t eat late in the evening
  • Relax and clear your mind in the evening.
  • Reduce fluid intake in the late evening and try to use the bathroom right before bed.
  • Keep your mind and body busy in healthy activities you like.


Not having a found sleep is a major concern we all have been going through nowadays. Whether be it our busy schedules or too much worries in our life. Ultimately we are the ones who are going to take care of ourselves. So, let’s take small steps towards a better life.

Dn.Somia Arshad is a student of Diet and Nutrition from University of Lahore. She can be reached at @somia_arshad016.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Children Health Food Food Habits Health Knowledge


Fast food consumption is steadily rising in both developed and developing countries. Dining out has become increasingly popular globally. For a long and healthy life, good nutrition and proper food are vital. But most of the children have developed bad eating habits in recent years, which have a severe impact on their health.

It is stated that food items that can be prepared easily, quickly, ready to use meal and sold in restaurants are called fast food. Fast food items include: pizza, burger, sandwich, nuggets, chips, fried fish or chicken and french fries. In other words, fast food is nutrient-deficient but calorie-dense food. Mineral, vitamin, fiber and amino acid deficiencies are all examples of nutrient deficiencies.

Negative Aspects of Junk Food

Daily fast food consumption causes long-term health issues including obesity, emotional, self-esteem issues and chronic illnesses later in life. For children, a single fast food meal can contribute 160 and 310 more calories to their daily caloric intake, respectively. Deficiency of vitamin A and C as well as mineral deficiencies such as magnesium and calcium, promote the development of deficiency disorders and osteoporosis, as well as dental cavities due to increased sugar consumption.

Atopic Illnesses

Fast food consumption of more than three times per week is linked to an increased risk of atopic illnesses such as asthma, eczema, and rhinitis, with asthma severity being over 40% higher in teenagers and more than 25% higher in younger children. Daily consumption severely attacks on children’s learning skills.

Digestive problems

Irritable bowel syndrome and gastro-esophageal reflux illness are common in children who are hooked to junk foods. Because fatty foods are deep fried, the oil utilized drips into the stomach’s lining, increasing acid production. Spices accumulated in this area irritate the stomach lining, making digestion more difficult. Because junk foods have a low fiber content, problems like hemorrhoids and constipation become more common.

Decreased sugar level

High levels of refined sugar can be found in a variety of junk meals, putting a strain on children’s metabolism. Because fattened foods are deficient in carbs and proteins, blood sugar levels decrease sharply after ingestion. This situation will make you crave junk food more frequently. A week of constant junk food consumption is enough to activate memory deterioration, and the presence of fat content decreases the ability to learn new abilities.


Eating a lot of fast food as a kid makes it difficult to eat properly later in life, even if medical problems are already present, because childhood eating patterns are hard to break by adulthood. Fast food’s addicting flavor makes it unlikely that the palate will subsequently appreciate the simpler and less spicy flavors of regular food.

Low energy level

Fast food might make it difficult to participate in extracurricular activities since it lacks the nutrients necessary for physical activity. Physical inactivity pulls children out of peer groups while also affecting their physical and mental health.


Fast foods are frequently deficient in essential fatty acids. These contain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are not manufactured by the body but are necessary in high concentrations in the brain and retina for the synthesis of cell membranes. It’s hypothesized that a deficiency of these nutrients is linked to increased antisocial behaviour and maybe hyperactivity.

Fatigue and paleness

Vitamins and proteins, which are the most desired and helpful components for a healthy body, are not found in junk meals. All of the body’s systems function abnormally as a result of this. Children may feel full and content after eating, but they become frail and depleted after a while. They may develop chronic ailments later in life. Because junk food quickly depletes one’s energy level, daily activities can become a difficult chore for them.

Dn.Asma Abdul Rehman has completed her M.Phil degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (2021) and now she is working as a lecturer at Saint marry college of advance studies Gujranwala. She can be reached at @asma_warraich_.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Disease Food Health Nutrition


Obesity is an excess of adipose tissue or body fat. It can be defined as a proportion of body weight composed of adipose tissue (percent body fat) that exceeds a range that is considered healthy. Adult males are generally considered obese when their percent body fat is 25% and adult females are considered obese when their percent body fat is 33%.

Methods to detect obesity

1- Body Mass Index:

Because it is often impractical to determine body composition in the clinical setting, and because accurate measurements of height and weight can be easily obtained, obesity in adults is often defined as a BMI of more than 30.0 kg/m2. Though not a direct measure of body fatness, BMI (also known as Quetelet’s index) can be considered a proxy for measures of body fatness and is regarded as a convenient and reliable indicator of obesity. Overweight is a body weight in excess of some standard  weight, usually in relation to height. In adults, overweight is generally defined as a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, “healthy weight” is defined as a BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, and underweight is defined as a BMI below 18.5 kg/m2.

2- Waist Circumference

A practical approach for estimating the amount of adipose tissue in the hips and thighs is to measure the circumference of the hips or buttocks. This measurement is taken at the point yielding the maximum circumference around the hips or buttocks. Waist circumference is particularly useful in assessing the disease risk of patients who are categorized as having a healthy body weight (BMI of 18.5224.9 kg/m2), who are considered overweight (BMI of 25.0229.9 kg/m2), or who are mildly obese with a BMI of 30.0234.9 kg/m2.



40 inches (102 centimeter)


35 inches (88 centimeter)

3- Waist to Hip Ratio

The WHR(Waist to Hip Ratio) is calculated by dividing the WC measurement by the hip circumference measurement. A WHR 1.0 results when WC is greater than hip circumference. The WHtR(Waist to Height Ratio) is calculated by dividing a person’s WC by his or her height. Both have been shown to better identify health risks than BMI alone.

Shapes of obesity

1- Pear Shape

It combines a slimmer “ectomorph” upper body with an “endomorph” lower body. People with this shape have extra fat in the hip and thigh area. It is more common among women, and it may be part of the reason they often live longer than men.

2- Apple Shape

It is also called a “beer belly,” which means you have more fat stored around your stomach, while your lower body stays thin. It is more common in men, and it’s worse for your health than the pear shape. That is because belly fat is often a sign that you have more fat deeper inside, around your internal organs, as opposed to just beneath the skin. This kind is more closely linked to heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol.

Etiology of obesity

Obesity develops when the body’s chronic energy intake exceeds its energy expenditure. At first glance this may seem simple and straightforward. However, because of the multiple and complex neuroendocrine and metabolic systems influencing energy intake and energy expenditure, obesity is actually a heterogeneous group of disorders. Its etiology remains elusive, and its successful, long-term treatment is difficult.Among the key factors contributing to obesity are specific medical and psychiatric disorders or their treatment, genetics, and an obesogenic environment that promotes a high energy intake and discourages physical activity.

Medical Nutrition Therapy

1- High protein energy-restricted diets:

They result in larger reduction of body weight, reduction of body fat mass and long-term weight loss maintenance. They promote a sustained level of satiety, sustained energy expenditure and increased fat oxidation and sparing of fat-free mass.

High Protein foods include:

  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Lentils
2- Low-Carbohydrates diet:

The low-carb diet is that decreasing carbs lower insulin levels and causes the body to burn stored fat for energy, which ultimately leads to weight loss.

A low-carb diet restricts foods high in carbs including

  • Sugar
  • Gluten Grains
  • Trans Fats
  • Artificial Sweeteners
  • Highly Processed Foods

Allowed foods in low-carbs diet

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole grains

Physical Activity

Physical Activity is bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure(can be measured in kilocalories). When combined with dietary changes, physical exercise can result in additional weight loss, and when not combined with dietary changes, it can result in modest weight loss. Furthermore, physical activity is linked to enhanced long-term weight loss and weight loss maintenance after initial weight loss.

Dn.Khadija Naseer is Consultant dietitian at Din Medical Complex Burewala, Lecturer at Masterjii Network. She can be reached at @dn.khadijanaseer.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Disease Food Health Nutrition



by Dietitian Zoya Faisal on January 27th,2022

Our digestive system is one of the most important part of our body and involves various organs and associated structures which helps in maintaining the metabolism of body and helps the digestive system to work properly. Without a healthy digestive system, it is not possible for us to survive in a healthy way. Sometimes our behavioral and dietary habits upset the mechanism of digestive system which provokes various health related issues such as GERD and esophagitis. So let’s discuss the causes and dietary management of GERD.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter relax transiently and permits the contents to enter the esophagus. Regurgitation and spitting up of components are the main symptoms of GERD. GERD is totally treatable disease and can be treated through adopting various behavioral and dietary modifications.

Photo Credits: Cleveland Clinic

Etiology of GERD

It is a normal physiologic process that occurs several times a day in infants (healthy), children, and adults. We can associate this condition with transient relaxing of the (LES) lower esophageal sphincter (permit contents to enter the esophagus). In about 50% of infants, regurgitation and spitting up are the main symptoms. In simple words, we can say that this condition arises when the reflux of gastric contents in the esophagus occurs (it can also reflux back and go to the oral cavity/lungs). HEART BURNING is more prevalent in developed countries than in ASIA. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) helps in identifying different types of GERD. GERD can be classified as the presence of symptoms without abnormalities or erosions on endoscopic examination (non-erosive disease or NERD) or GERD with symptoms and declines present (ERD). 

(ERD) has more severe symptoms than (NERD). There is a condition called nocturnal GERD in which patients experience symptoms more at night time than in day time. Nocturnal GERD leads to esophagitis (inflammation) of the esophagus and the patient has difficulty sleeping. (ERD) is more common in men, and (NERD) is more common in women. GERD is also linked with obesity. Different studies show that GERD is more common in those with high BMI. GERD is also common in pregnancy and can occur in any trimester. 

Coming towards its pathophysiology

GERD has a complex pathophysiology. Read the table below to know the possible causes.

       Let’s try to find out the mechanisms involved in the cause of GERD.

  • You can get this condition when your saliva is decreased
  • Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is a cause of GERD
  • When (LES) pressure is down, you can get GERD
  • Impaired esophageal acid clearance
  • An increase in the sensitivity of one’s esophagus leads to GERD
  • Acid pocket (during the postprandial period)
  • Growth in the intraabdominal pressure leads to this condition
  • Delayed gastric emptying

The esophagogastric junction has three components: (LES) a 3-4 cm segment made by smooth muscles, the crural diaphragm, and the anatomic flap valve. (Anti-reflux barrier)

The tone of (LES) varies. 

The gastric distension enhances the relaxation of (LES). On average, transient (LES) relaxations persist for about 20 seconds, significantly longer than the typical swallow-induced relaxation. The reflux occurs when the pressure in the proximal stomach increases. Patients with (COPD) are at more risk as their intraabdominal pressure is high. It is the same case with the pregnant population and obese persons. The erosive esophagitis leads to hypersensitivity. It is also caused by impaired mucosal barrier function. The studies show us that delayed gastric emptying ultimately leads to GERD. Some studies support that this relationship has nothing to do with developing this condition (GERD). We have to overcome the complications. 

Behavioral modifications (Esophagitis) 

We should avoid

  • Eating within three to four hours of retiring
  • Lying down after meals
  • Tight-fitting garments
  • Cigarette smoking  

Nutrition management of GERD

Firstly we have to set our small and short-term goals. We have to decrease the exposure of the esophagus to gastric contents. We have to reduce the acidity of gastric secretions. We have to prevent pain and irritation. There are certain things which we have to avoid. 

  1. Large meals
  2. Fat (dietary)
  3. Alcohol 
  4. Coffee more than one cup in a day
  5. Fermented alcoholic beverages
  6. Any food that the patient feels exacerbate their symptoms

Dietitian Zoya Faisal is a freshly graduate nutrition student and is clinical internee at Farooq hospital, Lahore. She can be reached at @doctors_and_dietitians

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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