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Preventing Ketoacidosis on Keto Diet: Trends you absolutely must try this year!

Now-a-days, people are more prone towards losing their weight through easy and quick ways like initiating fad diets in their lifestyle and as their dietary habits. Keto diet has gained great significance among people and has become a trending diet for weight loss. The Keto diet has shown excellent results related to weight loss. But, it requires specific modification and variety in diet planning if you are following a keto diet to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. 

If you are planning to adopt the measures to prevent ketoacidosis while following a keto diet, you can follow these trends:

  • It is recommended to check your glucose levels of blood on regular basis
  • If your blood glucose levels are high, check the presence of ketone bodies in urine and control them
  • Follow a balanced diet having low-glycemic index foods
  • If you are diabetic, follow a diet plan according to the guidelines of your healthcare provider
  • Don’t forget to take your daily dose of insulin in case of diabetes

People often confuse ketosis and ketoacidosis, but both terms are different from each other. Ketosis is the metabolic state of the body in which enough energy is not provided through carbs. The sugar circulated in blood is not consumed properly by the body for energy consumption. Excess blood acids are produced in the body due to ketoacidosis as it is a complication of type-1 diabetes. DKA can be life-threatening and can lead to diabetic coma. It can also be triggered by illness, infections like urinary tract infections, pregnancy, or not following a proper diabetes plan.

Symptoms associated with ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis can be prevented if you are aware of the symptoms that could save a life. If you have diabetes and you observe the following symptoms, then you seek medical attention as soon as possible:

  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Extreme thirst
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia

Diagnosis of ketoacidosis

Level of ketone bodies in urine

Ketone levels

In body

Less than 0.5 mmol/L

Levels range from normal to low


More than 0.5mmol/L

This value indicates the beginning stage of ketosis

0.5-3 mmol/L

This is a stage of nutritional ketosis in the body

3-5 mmol/L

This is termed as a starvation mode of ketosis

More than 5mmol/L

This level is indicated as risky ketoacidosis and it is advisable to contact the doctor for medical assistance


More than 10mmol/L

This indicates the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis


Level of ketone levels in the blood

Ketone levels in the blood

Less than 0.5 mmol/L

Normal to low

0.5 mmol/L

Beginning ketosis

0.5-1.5 mmol/L

Moderate level

1.5-3.0 mmol/L

High level, may be at risk for DKA

3 mmol/L

DKA (Seek medical attention immediately)

Foods to consume and avoid



Meats- fish, beef, lamb, poultry, eggs

All the food items from grain and wheat group including granola bars, cereals, corn, pasta, rice.


Low-carb veggies- spinach, kale, broccoli

All forms of sugar and sweetened products and drinks including sugar sodas, honey, fructose, maple syrup.

High fatty forms of cheese, cream, butter and fats

Most fruits-apples, bananas, oranges

Nuts and seeds-macadamias, walnuts, sunflower seeds

All sort of food products from tuber groups like potatoes, yams, French fries


Fruits like avocado and all sort of berries particularly the raspberries


Sweeteners including the stevia and erythritol


Fats from healthy category like coconut oil, avocado and olive oil


How to replace carbohydrate rich foods with the Substitutes suitable for keto diet?

You might think that most of the food items are on a restricted list then what should we eat now? It is not so. There are still many food items and beverages that can be consumed for minimizing the texture and flavor to optimize your health.

Here we’ll discuss some simple food swaps which you can implement in your breakfast, lunch, dinner, and even dessert option. 

How to swap the wheat and all-purpose grain group with substitutes like almond and coconut flour?

All-purpose flour is used in almost all food items, including bakery goods such as loaves of bread, pasta, cereals. You can still enjoy these products on the keto diet by swapping the all-purpose flour with almond or coconut flour. You can make the low-carb version of your favorite food items like bread, pizza crust, pancakes, and waffles to enjoy them.

How to swap the pasta with substitutes like home-made keto-friendly noodles?

Pasta is all a flour-based food item, so creating a keto-approved version using low-carb flour is not recommended. The easiest keto hack for this is the julienne or pasta noodle size zucchini, eggplant, or cabbage.

How to swap the sugar and artificial sweeteners with keto-friendly items like stevia?

You can create a sweet taste in your keto-friendly foods without worrying about excess calories by using stevia, monk fruit, or Erythritol. They provide a balanced sweetness making a perfect keto-friendly sugar substitute.

Replace cereals, oatmeal with the low-carbohydrate options like nuts, seeds and sweeteners which are sugar-free.  

Instead of consuming high sugar-based cereals, high-carbohydrate snacks and oatmeal, you can make a healthy and keto-friendly cereal bowl using an appropriate amount of nuts, seeds and keto-friendly sweeteners.

Replace rice with cauliflower rice

You might be thinking that this swap option is not for me. But, you’ll be amazed to know that even if you are not a cauliflower fan, you can still consume it by cooking it in the form of a delicious dish.

Replace chips with baked cheese crisps or rinds

You can swap the chips and other munching snacks with cheese crisps and rinds. Potato chips, either in the form of packaged or fried, are full of carbs. So, you can swap it with these products.

How to swap the yogurt with keto-friendly coconut milk yogurt and other options

Yogurt is packed with carbs, sugars, or milk sugar. But it does not mean that you cannot eat yogurt on a keto diet. You can consume low-sweetened full-fat Greek yogurt or low-carb yogurt. Other than this, you can also add low-carbohydrate nuts and keto-friendly granola bars.

How to replace the high sugar ice-cream with keto-friendly sweetener and coconut milk

If you are a massive fan of gelato but are not consuming it due to high-fat keto ingredients, here is the solution. You can make your own heavy cream using coconut milk as a base for it and can add keto-friendly natural sweeteners.

Replace High-PUFA Oils with Avocado or coconut oil

Instead of high PUFA oils and spreads, you can try to initiate the substitutes like coconut oil and extra-virgin olive oil for cooking purposes. Other cooking oils are high in PUFAs including peanut, canola and vegetable oil.

Replace salad dressings with MCT Oil-based dressing and Avocado oil

For optimal health and nutrition, use MCT oil and avocado oil products as high PUFA content. They are more prone to damage when they are exposed to high light and air. This kind of situation is seen in the preparation of dressings and mayonnaise.

Replace sugar condiments and sauces with sugar-free products and keto alternates.

Make sure to read the label on the sugar condiments and sauces before purchasing them. Typical sauces and dressings packed with sugar include jam and jellies, BBQ sauce, honey mustard, maple syrup, ketchup, and tomato sauce.

Keto-friendly drink swaps

You can replace your high-carb and sweet drinks and beverages with keto-friendly drink options. Try these simple alternatives instead of water, black coffee, or unsweetened tea. You can replace regular soda with zero-carb soda like zero-sugar virgils. Sweetened coffee and tea drinks can be replaced with heavy cream and natural keto-sweeteners. Sweetened margaritas and traditional beer can be replaced with unsweetened dry wine and low-carb beer.

Be cautious with these products.

Here we will discuss the range of some products which you can use as substitutes as low-carbohydrate products.

  1. Artificial sweeteners

If you are selecting artificial sweeteners, then carefully have a look at the pack and manufacturing labels. It has been seen that sugars are sometimes mentioned on artificial sweeteners in hidden form or with some other names like maple syrup, fructose syrup etc. Beware with such tactics and consume the sweeteners in their pure form and select those products which are free from any additives.

  1. Maltodextrin and dextrose

 These two ingredients should be kept in consideration as they are not keto-friendly options. These two ingredients break down rapidly into glucose and are absorbed in the mainstream. These ingredients can increase the sugar and insulin levels in blood and can lower the ketone levels in body.

  1. Artificial flavors, colorings, and preservatives

It is recommended to consume these products in lower quantities as their health effects are still not well-known. It is recommended to avoid the artificial flavors and preservatives.

  1. IMO

Isomaltooligosaccharide, also known as IMO, is a new ingredient and is claimed as a dietary fiber. But researches have shown that they readily absorb the sugar in the mainstream and small intestine.

How to determine if food is keto-friendly and healthy?

You can lose weight and improve your health by following an essential keto diet, but you might still not be sure about some food products. In such conditions, you can apply three keto-friendly food principles.

To determine if the food is keto-friendly and healthy, consider the:

  • Net carb content
  • Protein and fat content
  • Health effects

The question that if the food is keto-friendly or not can be resolved if the specific food:

  • It helps you to stay within your carb limit
  • It allows you to meet your fat and protein needs
  • It allows you to meet your macros with that food
  • Improves your health and well-being

Relation of High protein foods and ketosis

Protein consumption is also associated with the production of ketones. It creates much less impact than carbs. The amino acids found in the protein can sometimes increase insulin levels. It can provide substrates to the liver and decrease ketone production, thus potentially kicking out the body from a state of ketosis.

But still, one high-protein meal will not affect your ketone levels in the body. We recommend you to stay within the following range based on your activity level.

  • If your activity level falls in the sedentary group, 0.6g and 0.8g protein per pound of lean body mass are recommended.
  • If your activity level drops in the active state, then the recommended amount for protein is in between range of 0.8g-1.0g per pound of lean body mass.
  • If your activity level falls in the lift weight category, then the recommended amount for protein is in between range of 1.0g-1.2g per pound of lean body mass.

Blood ketone level chart

Ketosis level

Blood ketone range

What does this mean?

Sugar-burning mode

<0.2 mmol/L

Your body has enough sugar, so ketone production is inconsistent.

Transitional phase

0.2-0.5 mmol/L

Your body is likely starting to produce ketones consistently.

Light ketosis

0.5-0.8 mmol/L

Consistent ketone production

Experiencing the benefits of ketosis

Ideal for everyday dieting

Medium ketosis

0.9-1.4 mmol/L


Deep ketosis

1.5-3.0 mmol/L

Might help promote weight loss

Might confer more neurological benefits

Therapeutic ketosis

3.0-5.0 mmol/L

Only recommended under close medical supervision for the treatment of certain medical conditions

Extended fast ketosis

3.0-5.0 mmol/L

May only be reached during extended fasts or extreme caloric restriction

Achieving this range consistently is unnecessary and indicative of a poorly-formulated keto diet

Sign of ketoacidosis

>10 mmol/L

Usually only occurs as a result of uncontrolled diabetes or alcoholism

Related questions

Can you achieve ketoacidosis state on a keto diet? High fat may induce ketoacidosis. Other than this, lactation can also aggravate the condition and can trigger you into ketoacidosis.

How can we prevent ketoacidosis? We can prevent ketoacidosis by following these measures:

  • Managing diabetes and following a healthy eating and physical activity plan.
  • Monitor the blood sugar level regularly.
  • Adjusting the insulin dose as needed.
  • Checking the ketone levels.

Can ketones be high on a keto diet? Healthy people can develop high ketone levels on a ketogenic diet. Keto diet promotes the weight loss and encourages the body to make more ketones to burn fat.

Which is the fastest way to get rid of ketones?

 If ketones are detected in your blood or urine, you should drink a plenty amount of water to flush out the ketones from body. Other than this, take insulin to bring the blood glucose level to normal range and check the ketone levels after every three to four hours.

What is the most common cause of ketoacidosis? The common causes of diabetic ketoacidosis includes the missing insulin, illness, infection or a clog in an insulin pump.


Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical or nutrition advice for your particular illness; health condition or goal; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health and nutrition issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Female Health Food Nutrition

Nutrition During Lactation and its Benefits:

Breast milk is a liquid food source that the human body generates to nourish newborns. In response to pregnancy and breastfeeding, the body produces it. However, individuals who have not been pregnant can also breastfeed with the help of hormones, medications, and stimulation like pumping.

Breast milk not only provides a child with enough nourishment, but it also boosts immunity. Nursing offers many benefits for both parents and children, and many of these benefits continue long after the breastfeeding period is over.

It’s amazing how flexible breast milk is; depending on the baby and the breastfeeding parent, its composition, color, volume, and flavor may all alter.

Nutrition during lactation:

In order to provide you and your child with the nourishment they require while you are lactating, it is essential to maintain a balanced diet. When breastfeeding, additional protein and calories are required. Eat three meals that are well-balanced and a few healthy snacks to meet your nutritional needs. Increase your intake of lean protein sources, fruits, vegetables, and healthy grains. Continue eating three servings of foods from the milk group each day to preserve your own bones and get the calcium needed for your baby’s bones.

Advantages of breastfeeding:

For baby:

  • It provides the liquids and nutrients needed for the first six months of life and is easier to digest than formula.
  • It may also offer some protection from allergies, ear infections, gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses, and SIDS.
  • It passes immunity from the mother to the child to help with illness prevention.
  • Lowers the risk of childhood obesity, diabetes, leukaemia, and lymphoma.
  • Some studies have found a correlation between IQ levels and later childhood.

For mom:

  • Helps the uterus return to normal size, may gradually assist with postpartum weight loss, and is more practical and inexpensive than formula.
  • Could reduce your risk of developing uterine and breast cancer
  • Deepens your relationship with your child

Nutrients requirements during lactation:


The recommended daily limit for breastfeeding mothers is 210 grammes of carbs, according to the Institute of Medicine. Breastfeeding women who regularly exercise may require more carbohydrates because they are the body’s main source of energy during physical activity. As long as you are getting at least 210 grammes of carbohydrates per day from wholesome sources, you can start reducing or eliminating harmful carbs from your diet.


Protein requirements for breastfeeding women are higher than for non-lactating women. For lactations lasting 0 to 6 months and 6 to 12 months, respectively, the recommended daily quantities should be raised by 16.8g and 12g, respectively.

The diet should carefully contain adequate amounts of high-quality protein for optimum milk production (milk, cheese, paneer, curds, poultry, eggs, cereal pulse combinations, nuts).

A diet lacking in protein and energy will result in a decrease in milk volume. The amount of casein (milk protein), however, may also decline if very little protein is taken.


It is recommended to eat extra fat in order to meet the essential fatty acid requirements. The energy density provided by this amount of fat in the diet would be sufficient to meet the higher energy needs of breastfeeding women.


Breast milk has about 30 milligrammes of calcium per 100 millilitres. On the basis of an optimal output of 850 ml, milk releases 300 mg of calcium every day. Additional calcium must be ingested in order to allow for the daily release of an additional 300 mg of calcium. A mother needs 1000 mg of calcium per day at this time to meet both her own needs and the calcium required for milk production.

The daily minimum amount of 500 ml of milk or milk products must be consumed to provide the calcium need, with the remaining requirements being met by other food items such ragi, Bengal gramme (whole), soybean, amaranth, fenugreek leaves, radish leaves, sesame seeds, tamarind, fish, etc.

Comparison of nutrient requirements in pregnancy and lactation



Recommended intake during pregnancy

Recommended intake during lactation

Energy (kcal)








Vitamin A(mcg)








Folic acid(mcg)
















Vitamin b12





Most moms who give birth to babies have enough food reserves to nurse their babies. The maternal diet may have an effect on the quantity of milk produced, the protein content, the water-soluble vitamin content, and the fatty acid composition.

Supplementing the diet of the mother with vitamins and minerals may not be necessary, with the exception of strict vegetarian mothers or mothers who are undernourished. Many doctors encourage the nursing mother to continue taking prenatal vitamins because it may be challenging to assess the quality of the mother’s diet while lactating. If suggested dietary adjustments are made for the mother, special conditions like diabetes, digestive problems, and inborn metabolic faults do not prohibit nursing. breastfeeding could be wholly or babies with special needs or those weighing less than 1500 g must have their nutritional requirements fully met. It could be required to alter the mother’s or the child’s diet in some ways.

Breast milk may possibly expose the newborn to contagious illnesses such hepatitis, herpes, TB, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It could be suggested to temporarily or permanently quit nursing. The only absolute contraindication to nursing is newborn galactosemia.

When a mother or newborn requires dietary modifications on either end, breastfeeding may be discouraged. This chapter’s specific recommendations are aimed to help a determined mother who wants to nurse her infant in meeting their nutritional demands. These recommendations aim to promote breastfeeding rather than discourage it.

Dn.Sadia Fatima is Director and Co-Founder of SDNO. She is a great nutrition entrepreneur and leader. Her actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more. She can be reached at @nutracare21_.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Relationship Between PCOS and Insulin Resistance

Most of the women now-a-days, are facing the issue of PCOS. PCOS known as polycystic ovararian syndrome is a condition in which the ovaries of the female produce abnormal quantity of male sex hormones, androgens. Numerous small cysts filled with fluid are formed in ovaries causing irregularity in menstrual cycle along with other complications. PCOS and insulin resistance is often interlinked with each other but what is the actual relationship between them? How is insulin resistance responsible for causing PCOS and is this thing curable?

It has been researched that 30-40% of the women facing the problem of PCOS are detected with insulin resistance that can lead towards high glucose levels in the body.1 Insulin resistance is considered as the root cause of PCOS that can exacerbate the symptoms of PCOS increasing the risk for type-2 diabetes and obesity. This relationship can be reversed with the management of lifestyle modifications and with the treatment through medications upon requirement. Medications should be recommended after screening so every women facing the issue of PCOS should get themselves screened for.

The condition and bio-chemistry of PCOS

PCOS called as polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that can cause irregular menstrual cycles, difficulty in conceiving, rise of male hormone levels and development of small follicles on the ovaries of females that hinder the egg production and release in women. PCOS is often linked with insulin sensitivity.

Insulin is produced by the gland pancreas that is located in the abdomen and have number of functions. Insulin is secreted in response of high blood glucose levels in the body. The glucose molecules after breakdown of carbohydrates consumed through diet enters the bloodstream after 15 minutes of intake. Insulin allows the cells to take up glucose for later use of energy.

If a person is resistant to insulin, the body does not responds to insulin in an efficient way. It leads to rise in glucose levels in the body. The consistent high levels of blood glucose can lead to pre-diabetes and then to diabetes in the person.

Link of PCOS and insulin resistance

It has been said that almost 60-70% of women face the issue of PCOS with insulin resistance. It is believed that high levels of hormone insulin cause the male hormone levels to rise in the body. Insulin is responsible for helping the sugar to enter the cells through insulin receptor cells. People facing the issue of insulin resistance needs more insulin than the normal level to proceed and process the sugar in body. If the insulin resistance is left unchecked, it can progress towards the condition of diabetes in women. Diabetes is diagnosed when the blood sugar levels are higher than 200 mg/dl and can also be identified authentically with HbA1c glucose test or with an oral glucose test. When the body produces excess insulin in the body, the insulin receptors function poorly and become incapable of not taking adequate sugars for the cells. Signs of diabetes include:

  • Polydypsia
  • Polyuria
  • Polyphagia
  • Fatigue
  • Numbness in hands and feet
  • Blurred vision

Relationship of diet with PCOS

Diet and nutrition plays a significant role in managing and treating PCOS. The combination of insulin resistance and inflammation in the body is also related with the diet which we consumed on daily basis. The blood sugar levels in the body become high in the state of insulin resistance especially if a person is in the habit of consuming refined carbs and added sugars. There are more chances of becoming insulin resistant with the increase of consumption from such dietary practices of simple carbohydrates and sugars.

People facing the PCOS show different response towards foods. There are different types of foods that can promote inflammation and can even worsen the condition and symptoms. On the other, there are various anti-inflammatory foods that can help to combat inflammation. It is recommended to switch to whole and less processed foods that can naturally provide benefits to the patient of PCOS instead of over-restricting the food items.

Foods to avoid with PCOS

There are various categories of foods that should be avoided if you are facing the condition of PCOS. We categorize them as follows:

  1. Foods and drinks with added sugar in high amounts

Sugary beverages with high amount of simple sugar in them are a lead contributor of high glucose levels in the body worldwide. The drinks like sweetened teas, sugary coffees, soda, and energy drinks are high in added sugars. Consuming such drinks on regular basis can worsen the insulin resistance contributing to inflammation in the body. It is not easy to detect sugar as we cannot easily spot it in foods especially in those which seem healthy. The foods like yogurt, dried fruits and nutrition bars, granola bars have added sugars in them. If you are aiming to lose weight, it is better to cut back on added sugars that can improve the insulin sensitivity in the body and can reduce the symptoms of PCOS in some women.

  1. Foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids

Omega-6 fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids are often interlinked but the truth is not so. Omega-3 fatty acids have high anti-inflammatory properties while omega-6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory. The foods which are not allowed on PCOS are from the sources of omega-6 fatty acids including the corn oil, vegetable oil, soybean oil, safflower and sunflower oils. Meat derived from animals that are fed on grain-based diet are also high in omega-6 fatty acids. Instead of these options, try to initiate the healthy fat from foods like fatty fish, nuts, seeds and grass-fed meat.

Foods good for PCOS

There are various anti-inflammatory foods that are considered good for PCOS. Some of them are explained below:

  1. Blueberries

Blueberries belonging to the category of anthocyanins are antioxidants in natures. Antioxidants are crucial for fighting against inflammation, and prevents the cell damage from free radicals. These are considered as the greatest source of fiber are natural sugar. Blueberries can raise the blood sugar levels in moderate amount as compared to the sudden spike caused by the refined sugars. It is due to the high fiber content in them so, blueberries should be included in the PCOS diet.

  1. Magnesium-rich foods

It has been said that women facing the issue of PCOS are likely to be deficient in magnesium. Magnesium is a trace element that promotes relaxation in the body and manages stress level. It also plays a role in controlling insulin resistance. Some of the food sources that are rich in magnesium are:

  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Nuts and butters like peanuts, cashews, nut butter, peanut butter
  • Soymilk
  • Spinach
  • Dark chocolate with 69% of cocoa
  • Black beans
  1. Vegetables without starch

Vegetables are considered as the best foods to eat for PCOS and besides this, they are beneficial for various other health matters too. Non-starchy vegetables are extremely low in carbohydrates and won’t raise your insulin levels in a significant way. Vegetables are extremely helpful for those who are following an insulin-resistant PCOS diet.

Green leafy and orange vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants. They help to combat the inflammation in the body and are great choice for a PCOS diet. Starchy vegetables can also be included in a PCOS diet but with a focus on moderate portion size in case of presence of insulin resistance. Starch can be broken down into blood sugar and can raise the sugar levels in the body worsening the insulin resistance. Some of the best dietary sources for non-starchy vegetables that can be included in PCOS diet are:

  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli and Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage and cauliflower
  • Carrots and cucumber
  • Celery and egg plant
  • Green beans and pea pods
  • Leafy green vegetables like kale, mustard greens
  • Mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Bell peppers
  • Salad greens like lettuce, spinach, endive
  • Squash and tomatoes

Metformin for PCOS and association with food

Metformin is a common ovulation induction agent that is effective for non-obese women facing the issue of PCOS. They are considered advantageous over the other first line treatments for anovulatory fertility conditions like clomiphene. Metformin with combination of clomiphene is an effective step for treatment for clomiphene-resistant women.

Metformin is an effective treatment for PCOS that enhances the body’s sensitivity to insulin. This drug decreases the circulating levels of insulin in the body and produces positive effect on the fat tissue. Metformin is recommended to women for PCOS treatment and to those having higher BMI. But the recent advances in nutrition have indicated that metformin is not a first-line therapy for treating PCOS in women. It is a treatment for patients facing the issue of type-2 diabetes. If you are facing the issue of PCOS, you can take metformin but adjust the diet. So, here we recommend the five foods that should be avoided while taking metformin:

Sugary drinks

It is better to avoid the sugary drinks if you are facing insulin-resistance PCOS. Metformin along with restriction of sugary drinks can work in a better way to improve the insulin sensitivity.


Alcoholic consumption along with intake of metformin can lead to development of lower blood sugar levels. Try to limit the alcohol drinks to no or just one drink per day if you are taking metformin for PCOS.

Foods with added simple sugars

Foods with added simple sugars are responsible for triggering the PCOS symptoms are can worsen the insulin resistance in body. It is recommended by AHA to limit the consumption of added sugars to less than 25 grams per day.

Refined grains

Refined grains are likely to raise the blood sugar levels and can worse the insulin resistance in body. Refined grains include all the bakery items like white bread and rice, bagels and tortillas. So, these items should be avoided while taking metformin for PCOS.

Fried food items

Metformin can sometimes cause gastrointestinal side effects in the body which can be due to the consumption of fried foods. You can cut off these fried foods that can help you to lose weight and to improve the PCOS symptoms.

Metformin and allowed food items

Nuts and seeds

Nuts and seeds are composed of unsaturated healthy fatty acids that are good for heart health and promotes healthy blood sugar levels. These are good for PCOS, and does not interfere with absorption of metformin.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory in nature. So women facing the issue of inflammatory PCOS can consume thedietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids along with metformin.

Protein-rich food items

Protein rich foods like chicken, fish, eggs, lentils and quinoa are helpful for PCOS as they provide feeling of fullness and improve satiety levels in the body. They do not raise the blood sugar levels in the body.

Non-starchy vegetables

Most of the non-starchy vegetables are low in carbohydrates and rich in fiber. These vegetables does not rise the blood sugar levels in the body. All the richly colored fruits and vegetables are good source of anti-oxidants that help in fighting inflammation in the body.

Lifestyle changes for managing PCOS

Along with diet and medications, betterment in lifestyle can also manage the PCOS with insulin sensitivity. These lifestyle changes include:

  • Initiating regular physical activity
  • Managing stress
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Taking PCOS supplements

Stopping the vicious cycle of PCOS and insulin resistance

Unfortunately, there is no cure for PCOS and it can be dealt only with modifications in lifestyle and medications. Symptoms can be managed through these tactics. Lifestyle changes has helped the people with PCOS to manage insulin resistance. You can gradually improve the habits in your lifestyle over the time including some habits below:

1. Exercising regularly

Exercise is one of the best way to manage both insulin resistance and PCOS. It cause the receptors of our muscle cells to take in the sugar without consuming extra insulin production. This process can make the insulin receptors sensitive to lower the insulin levels in body. Body responds to less insulin production for processing sugar. The lower levels of insulin, leads to the reduced androgen production helping in treating PCOS.

2. Healthy eating habits

Healthy eating habits are vital for the women having PCOS and insulin resistance especially in the ones having higher BMI. You goal should be to achieve a sustained weight loss over the time. It is advisable not to follow any fad diets as they are highly disruptive for health. You can lower the cytokine levels through reduction in the abdominal fat as they are harmful for the insulin receptors. Weight loss also helps the insulin receptors to work better and allows the pancreas to lower the production of insulin. It is important to reduce or in cases, cut down the simple sugars and carbohydrates as insulin resistance reduces the body’s ability to break down the carbs.

3. Stress reduction

‍Managing stress levels in PCOS, has shown the reduction in levels of insulin resistance. Stress encourages the stored sugars from the liver to get released that can cause sudden spike in the blood sugar and insulin levels.

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

She can be reached at

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Food Food Habits Knowledge Nutrition

Dangers of Sugar to our Body

Sugar is a broad term that is used a lot in daily rituals. We are consuming sugar in large amounts, which is present in almost all food items. Fruits, vegetables, sugary drinks, candies, and all sorts of food items are packed with sugar. Some have minimal sugar, while others are loaded heavily with this component. Sugar is present in natural and artificial forms in food items. Natural sources of sugar, such as fruits and dairy products, have less detrimental effects on the body than the artificial sugars from beverages, sodas, and desserts. So the question arises: What are the dangers of eating sugar, and how can we deal with them?

The alarming statistics on sugar consumption and the effects of sugar claim that unacceptable levels of sugar in the body could disrupt the metabolic, hormonal, and physiological conditions of the body leading to the initiation of various ailments, including:

  • Heart diseases
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Cancers
  • Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
  • Osteoporosis

The term ‘natural sugar’ does not mean that it is overall a healthy item for our health. Raw sugar is present in all the food items we consume daily, including high-carb meals and high-glycemic-index foods that can cause sudden blood sugar spikes. Other than this, there are hidden sugars in packaged and processed foods that should be considered. All the names mentioned on packaged items like brown sugar, corn sweetener, cane sugar, lactose, rice sugar, molasses, maple syrup, and others are the hidden forms of sugar that leave the same effect on the body. We should keep an eye on our daily sugar intake for our body.

Sometimes the sugar levels are high in the body, and we cannot figure out the exact issue, so various tests are available to detect the root cause of symptoms. There are many dangers of consuming too much sugar. HbA1c is a test in which the amount of glucose attached to the hemoglobin (red blood cell) is checked. 

  • Diabetes
  • Eye disorders
  • Hypertension and raised blood glucose can lead to:
  • Hyper and hypoglycemia
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Ketoacidosis 
  • Cataract

The Carbohydrate model of Sugar & Metabolic syndrome

The carbohydrate model is related to sugar addiction and the increased urge to consume sugar in the body. Our 80% of food items are loaded with sugars in different forms like lactose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, etc. Processed foods include artificial conditions of sugar that can raise blood sugar levels. The number of carbohydrates we consume in the body is directly associated with the levels of blood sugars in the body. 

The end-product of carbohydrates is glucose which is also called simple sugar. Simple sugar is responsible for raising blood sugar levels in the body. The higher levels of blood sugar in the body are managed by the hormone insulin, which converts the excess sugar into fat and drives the glucose in cells. This whole mechanism does not provide a feeling of fullness, and the person feels less satiated, which triggers the hunger hormone, and the person ends up attaining pleasure from sweet tastes. 

The beginning of metabolic syndrome

We consume carbohydrates in more amounts than other food groups as our central calorie intake revolves around this macronutrient for energy production. The end product of carbohydrates that is glucose, is managed by insulin that forces extra sugar to be converted into body fat for later use. Over the years, when we keep adding sugar and excess carbohydrates through carbohydrate loading in the body, our cells lose the ability to use the sugar for energy through the mitochondrial process.

It raises the sugar level in the bloodstream to a toxic level and leads to glycation, inflammation, and associated disorders. This overcompensation of compounds causes insulin resistance in the body that leads to the provocation of various metabolic diseases like:

  1. Increase levels of fasting blood sugar
  2. Excess levels of insulin
  3. Obesity
  4. High levels of triglycerides
  5. Lower levels of HDL and higher levels of LDL
  6. High blood pressure



It is seen that the endurance of diabetes has widely prevailed all around the globe in the past few years. It is considered the cancer danger of sugar. Although there are many different reasons for diabetes in human beings, it is scientifically proven that excessive sugar intake in the body leads to diabetes. Again, obesity is a widely spreading disease caused due to excessive intake of sugar, and it leads to the occurrence of diabetes in human beings. Also, it is seen that with increased intake, sugar causes resistance in the working pattern of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone that is naturally produced in the human body, produced in the pancreas and works to regulate the blood sugar level in the human body. With resistance in the work pattern on the insulin hormone, the blood sugar level in the body rises and increases the risk for diabetes.



It is seen all over the globe that obesity is considered an alarming problem not only in adults but in people of all age groups, from children to people of older ages. One of the main factors which play a vital role in obesity is soft drinks. Different researches are conducted all over the globe which proves that people who love to drink fizzy drinks and other drinks which contain added sugar in them are seen to be suffering from obesity at a very high rate, as compared to other people who don’t tend to take soft drinks much often. The reason for this is that sweetened drinks are rich in a nutrient which is called fructose. The main function of fructose when it enters the human body is that it increases the urge to hunger, leading to an increase in appetite, eventually leading to obesity.



High sugar intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The reason is that it has been proved by several medical science researchers that high sugar intake causes obesity, which eventually leads to inflammation of the arteries and blood vessels, which further leads to chronic heart diseases that can cause the death of a person. Also, it has been seen that consuming too much sugar in diets and sweetened drinks can lead to a disease called atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by fatty, artery-clogging deposits. In short, diets rich in high sugar can cause a person to develop heart disease, which can eventually lead to the death of a person.



The leading cause of acne and breakouts on our skin is a diet rich in sugar and sweets. The raised level of blood sugar and insulin triggers the release of androgens which increases oil production and excretion of sebum on the skin, causing acne. Can you be allergic to sugar? Yes, you can be allergic to sugar leading to a disastrous form of acne.

Sugar is available in various forms in almost all types of foods. The difference between low and high glycemic index foods helps people keep their quantity in moderation. There are fewer chances of development of acne if a diet revolves around low glycemic index foods. 

Research has proved that a diet low in glycemic index foods helps the person maintain the sugar and carbohydrate levels in the body and improves the acne. Acne, breakouts, and increased sebum and oil production in the skin are more due to intake of oily foods, refined carbohydrates, and high-sugar beverages and sodas. 



Eating meals rich in sugar significantly increases the risk of cancer in people. The reason for this is that, again, eating a diet that is high in sugar increases obesity in people, which eventually disturbs the mechanism of the overall human body, which can then lead to fatal diseases such as cancer.



Wrinkles are a natural process that appears on the skin of human beings, which shows that the person’s age is increasing with time. Although it is a natural process, some factors either accelerate or decelerate the aging process. Consuming too much sugar or eating food that contains excessive sugar in them accelerates the aging process a lot. The mechanism for this is that a diet rich in sugar causes significant damage to elastin and collagen, due to which the skin loses its firmness; hence, wrinkles are produced on the face and skin. 

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Disease Food Habits Nutrition

Eating Disorders Types and Treatment

(EDs) means “persistent eating disturbance.” In other words, unhealthy eating habits to develop is known as eating disorders. Eating disorders are serious mental disorders. The patient may eat very less or the patient may eat a very large amount of food. Many people disengage from treatment. All the conditions including eating disorders are medical conditions. Heart and kidney issues arise and the patients may also suffer death. The causes of these disorders are vague. Some causes may include:

  • Genetic causes
  • Biological causes
  • Causes related to behavior
  • Psychological causes
  • Social factors

Symptoms may vary depending on the severity of the condition. In binge eating, the patient may eat a very large amount of meals. During binge periods, the patient may eat very fast. The patients may eat alone due to fear of embarrassment. Frequent dieting may be a characteristic of these patients. Throwing food or use of laxatives comes under symptoms of bulimia nervosa. Fasting is also a symptom of bulimia. In bulimia nervosa, sore throat is also present. Teeth become scary (decay). Gastro problems arise. Imbalance in electrolytes is also present. In anorexia nervosa, excessive exercise is a common symptom. There is a fear of gaining weight. Chronic health problems may also arise. Anemia is also present. Nails become brittle. The patients may present with fine hair over the body. Hypotension persists. Internal body temperature falls. Fatigue persists. The function of the heart becomes poor with organs malfunctioning. Some patients may also die of suicide. In severe circumstances, it can cause serious health problems and result in death if it is left untreated. We all should know the term that is diabulimia. It’s when people reduce taking insulin to lose weight.

Anorexia Nervosa (AN)

(two subtypes are: restrictive eating only and restrictive eating with purging)

Severity based on current body mass index in adults and body mass index percentiles in children. This condition is more common in industrialized countries. Genetic, physiologic, environmental, and temperamental factors are the major risk factors. Inefficiency in executive functioning is common in these people. Many changes occur during anorexia nervosa. Organs become damaged especially the heart, nervous system, and kidneys.

Bulimia Nervosa (BN)

(uncontrollable eating of food)

Self-induced vomiting, laxatives overuse, diuretics, the use of thyroid hormones, fasting, and overburdened exercise are the compensatory methods. There are the following levels of the condition: mild, moderate, severe, and extreme. It is found in women (2%) and men (0.5%). The diagnosis rate is 10-15% of cases. It is also prevalent in industrialized states. Genetic, physiologic, environmental, and temperamental factors are the major risk factors.

Binge Eating Disorder

(a clinical disorder; characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating)

Mild, moderate, severe, and extreme are the severity levels of the condition. It is more in women (3.5%) and men (2%). The rates are found in Caucasians, Asians, and Americans. There is no crossover between BED to other eating disorders. It has an official diagnosis.

Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (subclinical AN, BN, and BED)

This category is used in situations in which doctors select to communicate a particular reason.

Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder

This category is used in situations in which doctors select not to communicate the particular reason.

Avoidant or Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

(lack of interest in eating apparently)

There is weight loss. There is a need for oral nutrition supplements. The disease is not explained by a lack of available foods. This is not associated with any other adjacent medical condition.


(eating of nonfood substances)

Additional clinical attention is a need in the condition.

Rumination Disorder

(repeated regurgitation of food)

It is not associated with other complex medical conditions. Additional clinical attention is needed.










Anorexia nervosa


Disorders of anxiety

A range of brain abnormalities





Bulimia nervosa

Increased concerns regarding weight. Childhood physical abuse.

Reduction in self-esteem. Social anxiety problems/disorder.

Early pubertal maturation. Genetic vulnerability. 

(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)

(American Psychiatric Association 2013)


Treatment for eating disorders is done by doctors, nutritionists, therapists, and nurses. Individual or family psychotherapy is a treatment to change behavioral patterns. Nutritional counseling is also very potent. Anti-depressants are prescribed forms of medications. Some patients may need hospital treatment.


Dietitian Zoya Faisal is a Gold medalist in Doctor of Nutrition and Sciences (UMT), and did her M.Phil in food and nutrition (UVAS), Pakistan. She can be reached at

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Female Health Food Food Habits Health Nutrition

Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy

What is pregnancy:

Pregnancy is the period during which a fetus develops inside a woman’s womb or uterus. Pregnancy usually lasts about 40 weeks, or a little over 9 months, from the last menstrual cycle through delivery. The three stages of pregnancy are referred to as trimesters by doctors.

First trimester (week 1 to week 12)

The first step toward pregnancy is conception, which occurs when a sperm penetrates an egg. Through the woman’s fallopian tube, the fertilized egg (called a zygote) goes to the uterus and implants itself in the uterine wall. A zygote is a group of cells that will develop into the fetus and placenta. The placenta connects the mother and the fetus, providing nourishment and oxygen to the latter.

Second trimester (week 13 to week 28)

  • You can normally find out your baby’s sex between the ages of 18 and 20, which is when ultrasounds are used to search for birth defects.
  • At 20 weeks, a woman may begin to feel movement.
  • The fetus has left imprints and fingerprints after 24 weeks, and it sleeps and wakes on a regular basis.

According to the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Neonatal Research Network, babies born at 28 weeks have a 92 percent chance of surviving, although those born at this time are more likely to have serious health issues such as respiratory and brain problems.

Third trimester (week 29 to week 40)

  • At 32 weeks, the bones are soft and nearly fully formed, and the eyes can open and close; preterm babies are those born before 37 weeks. Developmental delays, visual and hearing problems, and cerebral palsy are more common in these children. Babies born between 34 and 36 weeks of pregnancy are referred to as “late preterm.”
  • “Early term” refers to babies born in the 37th and 38th weeks of pregnancy, which were formerly considered term. These newborns are more likely to have health issues than those born at 39 weeks or later, which is currently considered full term.
  • Babies delivered at 39 or 40 weeks of pregnancy are considered full-term. Full-term infants have better health outcomes.

Nutrition during pregnancy:

The body goes through a lot of physical and chemical changes throughout pregnancy. To keep yourself and your growing child fueled, you’ll need to eat well from a variety of sources. Eating a well-balanced, healthy diet can make you feel good and provide you and your child with all you need. It’s critical that you obtain all of the vitamins and minerals you need because the food you eat is your baby’s primary source of nutrition.

Because you’re feeding a whole new person, your body’s nutritional needs increase throughout pregnancy. Although the old adage “eating for two” isn’t entirely accurate, you and your baby will undoubtedly need more vitamins and macronutrients.

Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that are only required in trace amounts in the diet.

Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories, or energy. We’re talking carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. You’ll need to eat more of each type of nutrient during pregnancy.


Carbohydrates meals help you feel satisfied without having too many calories and are a vital source of energy, several vitamins, and fiber. Bread, potatoes, breakfast cereals, rice, pasta, noodles, maize, millet, oats, yams, and cornmeal are some of the items on the list. Choose oven chips that are reduced in salt and fat if you’re having chips.

Over a third of your diet should consist of these foods. Choose wholegrain or higher-fiber alternatives like whole-wheat pasta, brown rice, or just leaving the skins on potatoes instead of refined starchy (white) foods.


Protein is required for the growth of a baby’s tissues and organs, including the brain. During pregnancy, it also assists in the development of breast and uterine tissue. It even helps to boost your blood supply, allowing you to give your child more blood. Your protein needs increase with each trimester of pregnancy. Protein consumption during pregnancy should be much higher than current recommendations. You’ll need 70 to 100 grams of protein each day, depending on your weight and trimester.


While it is true that some fats have negative health effects, others serve as a vital source of energy and aid in the body’s assimilation of specific nutrients. They can also supply essential fatty acids, which are necessary for the growth of your unborn child during pregnancy but which your body cannot produce.

Unsaturated fat called DHA is crucial for a baby’s brain and eye development. Aim for 200 mg of DHA per day for pregnant women. DHA is found in oily seafood like salmon and tuna.

Nutrient requirements during pregnancy:


Recommended        daily amount of intake



70 grams

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts.


1200 milligrams

Dairy products, leafy green vegetables, orange juice, and almonds


30 milligrams

Meat, fish, poultry, cereals, whole grain breads, legumes, leafy green vegetables, dried peaches, apricots and raisins.

Folacin (Folic Acid)

600 micrograms

Leafy green vegetables, legumes, whole grains, orange juice, asparagus.

Pyridoxine (B6)

1.9 milligrams

Wheat germ, meat, whole grains, cauliflower, bananas, avocados, peanuts, sunflower seeds, soybeans, and corn.


15 milligrams

The same foods that contain iron, in addition to oysters, wheat germ and brown rice.

  • Vitamin (A): Pregnant women need 770 micrograms of vitamin (A) per day.
  • Vitamin (C): The recommended daily amount of vitamin C during pregnancy increases to 85 milligrams
  • Vitamin (D): All individuals under the age of 70, including pregnant women and breastfeeding women, need 600 IUs per day

Fluid intake during pregnancy:

In addition to the fluids in juices and soups, you can get enough fluids by consuming several glasses of water each day. Discuss limiting your use of artificial sweeteners and caffeine with your healthcare provider.

Foods to eat:

  • Proteins: Lean meat (chicken, fish, lentils, etc.) is advised as a daily source of protein.
  • Carbohydrates are a type of carbohydrate that may be found in a variety of foods (such as bread, cereals, potatoes, rice, and pasta).
  • Obtaining fat from plant sources (such as olive oil) is preferred over saturated fats obtained from animal sources (like butter).
  • Dairy products that have been pasteurized: (such as Yogurt, milk, and cheese).
  • Vitamins and minerals are essential for good health.
  • There’s a lot of fiber in this.

Foods to avoid:

  • alcohol
  • excessive caffeine
  • raw meats and seafood
  • high-mercury fish
  • uncooked processed meats
  • unpasteurized dairy

Dietary supplements:

Good dietary supplements:

  • Iron: To prevent iron deficiency anemia in the mother and to aid in the transmission of more blood to the fetus so that it receives the most oxygen possible.
  • Folic acid is used to prevent the development of spina bifida in the fetus.

Harmful dietary supplements:

  • Vitamin A supplementation, whether in food or tablet form, should be avoided during pregnancy since it can harm the fetus.
  • Dietary supplements are insufficient to replace a nutritious diet.

How to overcome cravings and food aversions during pregnancy?

When you’re pregnant, you can develop an aversion to certain foods, which means you won’t like the smell or taste of them. Food cravings for one or more foods may also arise.

Pregnancy cravings

A hunger for a donut, Chinese food, or an unexpected culinary combo like pickles and ice cream can strike. It’s unclear why pregnant women have dietary aversions or urge. Hormones, on the other hand, are thought to play a part. It’s fine to indulge your cravings now and then, especially if they’re for foods that are part of a healthy diet. However, you should try to limit your intake of junk food and processed foods.

Pregnancy aversions

Food aversions, on the other hand, may only be a problem if they involve meals that are necessary for a baby’s development.


Pica is a disorder in which you have a desire for unhealthy meals. Pregnant women with pica may want to eat clay, cigarette ashes, or starch, among other strange foods. Pica during pregnancy could be a sign of a vitamin or mineral shortage.

Dn.Sadia Fatima is Director and Co-Founder of SDNO. She is a great nutrition entrepreneur and leader. Her actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more. She can be reached at @nutracare21_.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Food Habits Health Nutrition

Dietary Tips to Stay Healthy This Eid-ul-Fitr

With the holy month of Ramadan drawing to a close, Eid-ul-Fitr 2022, the most celebrated Muslim festival, is just around the corner. It’s a festive occasion that begins with unique Islamic prayers, which are often performed in a vast open field in the congregation. This event is celebrated around the world with much fanfare and gusto, with a variety of delectable dishes spread out for a feast. It’s natural to want to indulge in some tasty delicacies after a month of fasting. Keeping in mind what your body has been through, however, exercising prudence is as crucial. Can you withstand that much temptation? That is the key question here that might be asked too much.

The festival provides you with so many delicious dishes in one place that it’s difficult to say no. While there’s nothing wrong with eating those tiny winy bits, overindulging and consuming a large amount of food at once might cause serious harm to your body. Remember that your body has accustomed to the one-month Ramadan routine, and that a drastic change in this might be quite hazardous. You may get indigestion and, as a result, bloating. Consuming high-calorie foods can result in feelings of excessive guilt as well as undesired weight gain. These are, unfortunately, the perils of social gatherings, which constitute an important element of the auspicious celebration of Eid. While these gatherings are unavoidable, you can make sure that Eid 2022 is a pleasant and healthy one by following the guidelines below:

Breakfast on Eid:

You should get your body ready to have breakfast in the morning after a month of not doing so. On the first day of Eid, begin by doing the same things you did throughout Ramadan’s iftar fast. Eat dates and drink water before the Eid prayer and eat breakfast almost a couple of hours later.


It’s tempting to go overboard with the delectable sweets after a month of devotion and constraint. Slowly chewing each mouthful and focusing on the feel, taste, and feeling of each mouthful can help you get ready for the day.

Avoid Overeating:

Overeating can result in a variety of health issues. When you don’t keep track of how much you eat, you’ll wind up eating too much, which might cause indigestion and acidity. The less food you consume, the less likely you are to suffer from indigestion. Set some rules for yourself about what you’ll eat and how much you’ll eat before you start serving. This will aid in the prevention of overeating. Avoid piling food on your plate since you may feel obligated to consume it all so it doesn’t go to waste. Refuse second helpings politely.

Maintain Sugar Levels:

We all know that sugary treats should not be consumed in large quantities. On Eid, Muslims usually start the day by greeting one another and sharing sweets. Those treats, as much as we enjoy them, should be consumed in moderation. Sharing sweets with others is the best method to prevent overeating them.

Before you begin with the other treats, try some dried dates filled with walnuts or dried figs. This will also help you to satisfy your sweet desire without going overboard.

Minimum Salt Intake:

Keep an eye on how much salt you consume. Excess salt can be harmful to one’s health, particularly the heart, as it elevates blood pressure. Salt intake should be kept to a minimum. Try to keep the number of highly processed foods to a minimum. These foods are often high in salt, sugars and saturated fat. If you do purchase processed foods, read the labels carefully and choose healthier ones that include less of these ingredients.

Let Veggies Come First:

You’re probably wondering why I’m asking you to eat vegetables, even on Eid. Yes, indeed! Eating your vegetables first is the greatest approach to control and minimize your hunger. Veggies are high in critical nutrients and fiber, which will make you feel satisfied, allowing you to eat fewer high-calorie, fattening foods. Start your supper with a salad or stir-fried vegetables, and I’m confident your stomach will only ask for a small portion of stuff like achaar gosht and chicken karahi.

Drinking Aerated Beverages Isn't a Good Idea:

While it may appear to be a good idea to take an aerated drink with your dinner to help you digest the heavy food, the reality is quite different. Aerated beverages are high in sugar and are harmful to your health. For better digestion, consume a glass of buttermilk with mint leaves instead of a glass of cold beverage. Buttermilk will not only help you digest food better, but it will also help you eat less. So, which option should you take? A sugary beverage or a protein-rich beverage. My advice is to choose the latter and you will not be disappointed.

Drinking Water:

On this day, stay hydrated. The glycogen levels are all messed up after the strict 30-day diet. These levels will return to normal if you drink plenty of water. Drinking water is especially important after eating sweets since the kidneys utilize water to eliminate the sugar from the system. It will also make you feel fresh and energized throughout the day, allowing you to spend quality time with your family.

Leave the table once you’re done:

The objective and goal here is to fulfil your hunger while avoiding going crazy after seeing the huge selection of delights. Remember that when you’re full, it’s a sign that you’re close to finishing. When your stomach is no longer ready to accept food, it sends signals to your brain telling you to stop eating. Pay attention to your body’s signals and gently declare that you have thoroughly enjoyed the meal and have consumed your fair share of Eid treats. Leave the table as soon as you’re done; don’t linger.

Exercise Around The Block or Walk The Talk:

Yes, you read that correctly. You will feel rejuvenated, relaxed, and joyful after going for a walk or going for exercise. You’re probably wondering how?  A regular walk and exercise routine generates feel-good chemicals that improve your mood and aid in hunger control. Furthermore, these prevent diseases and make you feel more energized. On the eve of Eid, it’ll help you feel less guilty as you go digging into that plate of stuff like Mutton Biryani or Shahi Korma with Naan.


Enjoy this occasion with your loved ones to the utmost, and I wish you the best of happiness. Enjoy the treats, but remember the above guidelines to stay healthy this Eid.

Dn.Saqib Iqbal is CEO and Co-Founder of SDNO. He is a social worker, having his own non-profit organization (H.E.L.P Philantropy) for this cause. He is also a good writer and photographer. His leadership skills go beyond the limits. He can be reached at @diet_by_smarty.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Disease Food Knowledge Nutrition

Foodborne Illnesses and their Types

Do you know about food-borne illnesses?

About six Americans get sick from these types of illnesses according to the (CDC). Illness leads to complications if not managed properly. “Health promotion” consists of safe food and water supply. Investigation of outbreaks caused by foods is very important. The groups of foods have ingredients associated with concerns about the safety of food.  When new methods of producing foods are introduced then many outbreaks take place.

What are different types of common foodborne illnesses?

Let us talk about the illnesses, onsets, and durations.


Symptoms along with signs

Duration and onset

B. cereus

Watery (diarrhea) with vomiting

6-15 hrs. (after taking contaminants) and duration is 24 hours


C. jejuni

Bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramping

(2-5 days) after eating contaminants and duration is 2-10 (days)


Clostridium botulinum

Muscle paralysis, eyelids drop, dryness of mouth, infants are lethargic and constipated, and muscle tone is poor

In foodborne illness, symptoms generally begin 18-36 hours after eating contaminated food and the duration is days/months


Clostridium perferengens

Nausea/vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and diarrhea

Within 6-24 hrs. after eating the food contaminated with contaminants


Cryptosporidium parvum

Stools (watery), nausea, fever, and cramping

2-10 days (after eating food)


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

Diarrhea, fever (low-grade), and malaise

With high dose (infective) diarrhea can be induced within 24 hours


Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)

Painful (diarrhea)

Slow onset and duration is 5-10 (days)


Listeria monocytogenes (LM)

Fever (mild), vomiting, sepsis, febrile gastroenteritis, and headache

Onset 2-30 (days)



Gastroenteritis, abdominal cramping, chills, and aches in muscles

After eating contaminated food (24-48 hours), and can be 12 hours in some cases



Diarrhea, and cramping

After eating food (12-72 hours)



Diarrhea, and stomach cramping

After eating contaminated food (12-48 hours)


Staphylococcus aureus

Nausea, retching, and prostration

Hours (1-6), and duration is (1-2) days


Streptococcus pyogenes

Red throat, tonsillitis, headache, vomiting, rhinorrhea, and rash

Days (1-3)


Vibrio vulnificus

Vomit, diarrhea, and mild illness

Gastroenteritis after 16 hours of eating food


Yersinia enterocolitica

Fever, diarrhea, right-sided abdominal pain, and appendicitis

After exposure (1-2) days

What are critical control points?

A strategy that is used to control foodborne illness. “Risk management” consists of evaluation, options assessment and implementation, monitoring, and then the review of the whole process. (HACCP) involves monitoring biological, chemical, and physical agents. It also monitors those critical points where control can be applied. So, it ensures proper food safety education which is necessary for all people involved in serving food to the population.  Adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control point (HACCP) regulation, food quality assurance programs, handling of freshly produce guidelines, technologic advances designed to reduce contamination, enhanced food supply regulations, and a greater emphasis on food safety education have contributed to a potential decline in illnesses caused by food.


What is the term “contamination” and is food and water safety important?

Precautions in the region of contaminants are very important. Many public water supplies, built using 20th-century technology, will need to invest more than one hundred and thirty-eight million dollars during the next 20 years for safe drinking water. Seafood is in contact with methyl-mercury. So, pregnant women need precautions in eating these kinds of plates of seafood. The dietetics professionals play an important role in spreading this kind of education. The (CFSAN) provides guidance and monitoring as well. On the other hand, we need to know the importance of food and water safety. We have to reduce pesticides, ensure safe food handling practices, reduce incidents and spreads of diseases with the administration of water, and reduce many environmental pollutants. The following are food and water safety resources:

  1. Agricultural Marketing Services, (USDA)
  2. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Duplicate
  3. The (CFSCAN)
  4. The (CDC)
  5. The (FEMA)
  6. Food Marketing Institute
  7. FoodNet
  8. Foundation for Food Irradiation Education
  9. International Food Information Council
  10. National Broiler Counsel
  11. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  12. National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation
  13. Produce Marketing Association
  14. S. Department of Agriculture
  15. S. Department of Education
  16. S. EPA _ Office of Ground and Drinking Water
  17. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)


What is bioterrorism?

“A deliberate use of microorganisms to induce disease”. The seven foodborne pathogens are introduced by (CDC):

  • Tularemia
  • Brucellosis
  • Clostridium botulinum toxin
  • Clostridium perferengens toxin
  • Salmonella
  • coli
  • Shigella

Current surveillance networks are designed to detect foodborne illnesses. Food serves as a vector (a primary agent). So, rapid communication and analysis of disease are important.


What is meant by a healthy food system?

To serve the population is the main aim of community nutrition as a field. (ADA) in 2014, issued some standards of professional importance. This ensures to sustain this type of application of standards for a prolonged time. The system is built and nourished properly which ensures sustainability. The safety, as well as the quality of the food and water supply, are components that built sustainability.

Dietitian Zoya Faisal is a Gold medalist in Doctor of Nutrition and Sciences (UMT), and did her M.Phil in food and nutrition (UVAS), Pakistan. She can be reached at

Doctor Awais Ibrahim Bajwa (MBBS), Mohiuddin Islamic Medical College, Pakistan, and clinical instructor in University of management and technology, Lahore campus. He can be reached at

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Food Health Nutrition


Lack of deep sleep can have a major negative impact on your health. When you don’t get a good night’s sleep, you’ll feel sluggish and moody the next day. Some side effects of missing out on sleep include fatigue, an inability to focus, and overeating. Some studies have shown that lack of sleep can actually contribute to obesity since it increases your levels of cortisol, a stress hormone that makes you feel hungry during the day. If you get enough hours of sleep each night, you’ll be more focused and alert.

The Circadian Cycle

“You are what you eat” may be a buzzword, but it identifies the fact that nutrition is a backbone for health, providing the energy we need and other inputs that make the body function properly. The links between nutrition and obesity, diabetes, and heart health are well-known, but many people are unaware that their diet can also affect sleep.

As a general rule, a balanced diet is generally considered of a variety of vegetables and fruits which is able to provide the recommended daily intake of vitamins and nutrients, contributing to better sleep while promoting a healthy weight.

Because both sleep and nutrition are extremely complex and involve multiple interconnected systems of the body, it is challenging to conduct research studies that conclusively demonstrate a single diet that is best for sleep. Instead, what appears most important is that a person gets adequate nutrition without overconsuming unhealthy foods.

Growing evidence indicates that sufficient nutrient consumption is important for sleep. One large study found a lack of key nutrients, such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and K to be associated with sleep problems. While this research does not prove cause-and-effect, it supports the likelihood that diet affects hormonal pathways involved in sleep.

High Carbs Alert!

High-carbohydrate meals with high glycemic indexes can also affect one’s energy level and sleep quality. It has been well established that high-carbohydrate meals often can make you feel drowsy. High-carbohydrate meals can also impair your sleep quality. In fact, high carbohydrate intake has been shown to increase the number of awakenings at night and reduce the amount of deep sleep you get. It is not a surprise that frequent consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with poor sleep quality.

What to do for a better sleep?

For improving your sleep, add some of the foods in your routine and see the magic yourself!

Our ancestors got something…

A warm glass of milk before bed can help you sleep better. Besides the soothing sipping, milk contains tryptophan, an amino acid linked to better sleep.

Gotta grab your tryptophan!

There may be a link between tryptophan and serotonin, a chemical messenger that helps produce healthy sleeping patterns as well as boost your mood.

You can also get some tryptophan from bananas — which are rich in potassium, too. This is an important element to human health and a natural muscle relaxant as well. According to one study, potassium levels also play a role in sleep, with more benefiting slumber time.

Sleeping Beauty

Melatonin (a hormone produced in your body) is partially responsible for regulating a person’s circadian rhythm, or their sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin may also be effective in relieving sleeping problems.

Foods with naturally occurring melatonin include:

  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Grapes
  • Pistachios
  • Tomatoes
Magical Seeds

Pumpkin seeds, , contain  600 mg of tryptophan per 100g as well as good amount of zinc, both of which helps the brain turn tryptophan into serotonin which is the precursor to melatonin.

Pumpkin seeds are also rich in vitamin E, manganese, magnesium, protein, and iron. To get the biggest zinc benefits, eat the whole roasted seeds including the kernel and shell. The recommended serving size is about 1/4 cup.

Follow these, and you are good to go!

Here are some tips that you can follow to have a cozy good night sleep people!

  • Increase bright light exposure during the day
  • Blue light tricks your body into thinking its daytime. There are several ways you can reduce blue light exposure in the evening.
  • Caffeine can significantly worsen sleep quality, especially if you drink large amounts in the late afternoon or evening.
  • Reduce irregular or long daytime naps
  • Try to sleep and wake at consistent times
  • Optimize your bedroom environment
  • Don’t eat late in the evening
  • Relax and clear your mind in the evening.
  • Reduce fluid intake in the late evening and try to use the bathroom right before bed.
  • Keep your mind and body busy in healthy activities you like.


Not having a found sleep is a major concern we all have been going through nowadays. Whether be it our busy schedules or too much worries in our life. Ultimately we are the ones who are going to take care of ourselves. So, let’s take small steps towards a better life.

Dn.Somia Arshad is a student of Diet and Nutrition from University of Lahore. She can be reached at @somia_arshad016.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Children Health Food Food Habits Health Knowledge


Fast food consumption is steadily rising in both developed and developing countries. Dining out has become increasingly popular globally. For a long and healthy life, good nutrition and proper food are vital. But most of the children have developed bad eating habits in recent years, which have a severe impact on their health.

It is stated that food items that can be prepared easily, quickly, ready to use meal and sold in restaurants are called fast food. Fast food items include: pizza, burger, sandwich, nuggets, chips, fried fish or chicken and french fries. In other words, fast food is nutrient-deficient but calorie-dense food. Mineral, vitamin, fiber and amino acid deficiencies are all examples of nutrient deficiencies.

Negative Aspects of Junk Food

Daily fast food consumption causes long-term health issues including obesity, emotional, self-esteem issues and chronic illnesses later in life. For children, a single fast food meal can contribute 160 and 310 more calories to their daily caloric intake, respectively. Deficiency of vitamin A and C as well as mineral deficiencies such as magnesium and calcium, promote the development of deficiency disorders and osteoporosis, as well as dental cavities due to increased sugar consumption.

Atopic Illnesses

Fast food consumption of more than three times per week is linked to an increased risk of atopic illnesses such as asthma, eczema, and rhinitis, with asthma severity being over 40% higher in teenagers and more than 25% higher in younger children. Daily consumption severely attacks on children’s learning skills.

Digestive problems

Irritable bowel syndrome and gastro-esophageal reflux illness are common in children who are hooked to junk foods. Because fatty foods are deep fried, the oil utilized drips into the stomach’s lining, increasing acid production. Spices accumulated in this area irritate the stomach lining, making digestion more difficult. Because junk foods have a low fiber content, problems like hemorrhoids and constipation become more common.

Decreased sugar level

High levels of refined sugar can be found in a variety of junk meals, putting a strain on children’s metabolism. Because fattened foods are deficient in carbs and proteins, blood sugar levels decrease sharply after ingestion. This situation will make you crave junk food more frequently. A week of constant junk food consumption is enough to activate memory deterioration, and the presence of fat content decreases the ability to learn new abilities.


Eating a lot of fast food as a kid makes it difficult to eat properly later in life, even if medical problems are already present, because childhood eating patterns are hard to break by adulthood. Fast food’s addicting flavor makes it unlikely that the palate will subsequently appreciate the simpler and less spicy flavors of regular food.

Low energy level

Fast food might make it difficult to participate in extracurricular activities since it lacks the nutrients necessary for physical activity. Physical inactivity pulls children out of peer groups while also affecting their physical and mental health.


Fast foods are frequently deficient in essential fatty acids. These contain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are not manufactured by the body but are necessary in high concentrations in the brain and retina for the synthesis of cell membranes. It’s hypothesized that a deficiency of these nutrients is linked to increased antisocial behaviour and maybe hyperactivity.

Fatigue and paleness

Vitamins and proteins, which are the most desired and helpful components for a healthy body, are not found in junk meals. All of the body’s systems function abnormally as a result of this. Children may feel full and content after eating, but they become frail and depleted after a while. They may develop chronic ailments later in life. Because junk food quickly depletes one’s energy level, daily activities can become a difficult chore for them.

Dn.Asma Abdul Rehman has completed her M.Phil degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (2021) and now she is working as a lecturer at Saint marry college of advance studies Gujranwala. She can be reached at @asma_warraich_.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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