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Preventing Ketoacidosis on Keto Diet: Trends you absolutely must try this year!

Now-a-days, people are more prone towards losing their weight through easy and quick ways like initiating fad diets in their lifestyle and as their dietary habits. Keto diet has gained great significance among people and has become a trending diet for weight loss. The Keto diet has shown excellent results related to weight loss. But, it requires specific modification and variety in diet planning if you are following a keto diet to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. 

If you are planning to adopt the measures to prevent ketoacidosis while following a keto diet, you can follow these trends:

  • It is recommended to check your glucose levels of blood on regular basis
  • If your blood glucose levels are high, check the presence of ketone bodies in urine and control them
  • Follow a balanced diet having low-glycemic index foods
  • If you are diabetic, follow a diet plan according to the guidelines of your healthcare provider
  • Don’t forget to take your daily dose of insulin in case of diabetes

People often confuse ketosis and ketoacidosis, but both terms are different from each other. Ketosis is the metabolic state of the body in which enough energy is not provided through carbs. The sugar circulated in blood is not consumed properly by the body for energy consumption. Excess blood acids are produced in the body due to ketoacidosis as it is a complication of type-1 diabetes. DKA can be life-threatening and can lead to diabetic coma. It can also be triggered by illness, infections like urinary tract infections, pregnancy, or not following a proper diabetes plan.

Symptoms associated with ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis can be prevented if you are aware of the symptoms that could save a life. If you have diabetes and you observe the following symptoms, then you seek medical attention as soon as possible:

  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Extreme thirst
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia

Diagnosis of ketoacidosis

Level of ketone bodies in urine

Ketone levels

In body

Less than 0.5 mmol/L

Levels range from normal to low


More than 0.5mmol/L

This value indicates the beginning stage of ketosis

0.5-3 mmol/L

This is a stage of nutritional ketosis in the body

3-5 mmol/L

This is termed as a starvation mode of ketosis

More than 5mmol/L

This level is indicated as risky ketoacidosis and it is advisable to contact the doctor for medical assistance


More than 10mmol/L

This indicates the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis


Level of ketone levels in the blood

Ketone levels in the blood

Less than 0.5 mmol/L

Normal to low

0.5 mmol/L

Beginning ketosis

0.5-1.5 mmol/L

Moderate level

1.5-3.0 mmol/L

High level, may be at risk for DKA

3 mmol/L

DKA (Seek medical attention immediately)

Foods to consume and avoid



Meats- fish, beef, lamb, poultry, eggs

All the food items from grain and wheat group including granola bars, cereals, corn, pasta, rice.


Low-carb veggies- spinach, kale, broccoli

All forms of sugar and sweetened products and drinks including sugar sodas, honey, fructose, maple syrup.

High fatty forms of cheese, cream, butter and fats

Most fruits-apples, bananas, oranges

Nuts and seeds-macadamias, walnuts, sunflower seeds

All sort of food products from tuber groups like potatoes, yams, French fries


Fruits like avocado and all sort of berries particularly the raspberries


Sweeteners including the stevia and erythritol


Fats from healthy category like coconut oil, avocado and olive oil


How to replace carbohydrate rich foods with the Substitutes suitable for keto diet?

You might think that most of the food items are on a restricted list then what should we eat now? It is not so. There are still many food items and beverages that can be consumed for minimizing the texture and flavor to optimize your health.

Here we’ll discuss some simple food swaps which you can implement in your breakfast, lunch, dinner, and even dessert option. 

How to swap the wheat and all-purpose grain group with substitutes like almond and coconut flour?

All-purpose flour is used in almost all food items, including bakery goods such as loaves of bread, pasta, cereals. You can still enjoy these products on the keto diet by swapping the all-purpose flour with almond or coconut flour. You can make the low-carb version of your favorite food items like bread, pizza crust, pancakes, and waffles to enjoy them.

How to swap the pasta with substitutes like home-made keto-friendly noodles?

Pasta is all a flour-based food item, so creating a keto-approved version using low-carb flour is not recommended. The easiest keto hack for this is the julienne or pasta noodle size zucchini, eggplant, or cabbage.

How to swap the sugar and artificial sweeteners with keto-friendly items like stevia?

You can create a sweet taste in your keto-friendly foods without worrying about excess calories by using stevia, monk fruit, or Erythritol. They provide a balanced sweetness making a perfect keto-friendly sugar substitute.

Replace cereals, oatmeal with the low-carbohydrate options like nuts, seeds and sweeteners which are sugar-free.  

Instead of consuming high sugar-based cereals, high-carbohydrate snacks and oatmeal, you can make a healthy and keto-friendly cereal bowl using an appropriate amount of nuts, seeds and keto-friendly sweeteners.

Replace rice with cauliflower rice

You might be thinking that this swap option is not for me. But, you’ll be amazed to know that even if you are not a cauliflower fan, you can still consume it by cooking it in the form of a delicious dish.

Replace chips with baked cheese crisps or rinds

You can swap the chips and other munching snacks with cheese crisps and rinds. Potato chips, either in the form of packaged or fried, are full of carbs. So, you can swap it with these products.

How to swap the yogurt with keto-friendly coconut milk yogurt and other options

Yogurt is packed with carbs, sugars, or milk sugar. But it does not mean that you cannot eat yogurt on a keto diet. You can consume low-sweetened full-fat Greek yogurt or low-carb yogurt. Other than this, you can also add low-carbohydrate nuts and keto-friendly granola bars.

How to replace the high sugar ice-cream with keto-friendly sweetener and coconut milk

If you are a massive fan of gelato but are not consuming it due to high-fat keto ingredients, here is the solution. You can make your own heavy cream using coconut milk as a base for it and can add keto-friendly natural sweeteners.

Replace High-PUFA Oils with Avocado or coconut oil

Instead of high PUFA oils and spreads, you can try to initiate the substitutes like coconut oil and extra-virgin olive oil for cooking purposes. Other cooking oils are high in PUFAs including peanut, canola and vegetable oil.

Replace salad dressings with MCT Oil-based dressing and Avocado oil

For optimal health and nutrition, use MCT oil and avocado oil products as high PUFA content. They are more prone to damage when they are exposed to high light and air. This kind of situation is seen in the preparation of dressings and mayonnaise.

Replace sugar condiments and sauces with sugar-free products and keto alternates.

Make sure to read the label on the sugar condiments and sauces before purchasing them. Typical sauces and dressings packed with sugar include jam and jellies, BBQ sauce, honey mustard, maple syrup, ketchup, and tomato sauce.

Keto-friendly drink swaps

You can replace your high-carb and sweet drinks and beverages with keto-friendly drink options. Try these simple alternatives instead of water, black coffee, or unsweetened tea. You can replace regular soda with zero-carb soda like zero-sugar virgils. Sweetened coffee and tea drinks can be replaced with heavy cream and natural keto-sweeteners. Sweetened margaritas and traditional beer can be replaced with unsweetened dry wine and low-carb beer.

Be cautious with these products.

Here we will discuss the range of some products which you can use as substitutes as low-carbohydrate products.

  1. Artificial sweeteners

If you are selecting artificial sweeteners, then carefully have a look at the pack and manufacturing labels. It has been seen that sugars are sometimes mentioned on artificial sweeteners in hidden form or with some other names like maple syrup, fructose syrup etc. Beware with such tactics and consume the sweeteners in their pure form and select those products which are free from any additives.

  1. Maltodextrin and dextrose

 These two ingredients should be kept in consideration as they are not keto-friendly options. These two ingredients break down rapidly into glucose and are absorbed in the mainstream. These ingredients can increase the sugar and insulin levels in blood and can lower the ketone levels in body.

  1. Artificial flavors, colorings, and preservatives

It is recommended to consume these products in lower quantities as their health effects are still not well-known. It is recommended to avoid the artificial flavors and preservatives.

  1. IMO

Isomaltooligosaccharide, also known as IMO, is a new ingredient and is claimed as a dietary fiber. But researches have shown that they readily absorb the sugar in the mainstream and small intestine.

How to determine if food is keto-friendly and healthy?

You can lose weight and improve your health by following an essential keto diet, but you might still not be sure about some food products. In such conditions, you can apply three keto-friendly food principles.

To determine if the food is keto-friendly and healthy, consider the:

  • Net carb content
  • Protein and fat content
  • Health effects

The question that if the food is keto-friendly or not can be resolved if the specific food:

  • It helps you to stay within your carb limit
  • It allows you to meet your fat and protein needs
  • It allows you to meet your macros with that food
  • Improves your health and well-being

Relation of High protein foods and ketosis

Protein consumption is also associated with the production of ketones. It creates much less impact than carbs. The amino acids found in the protein can sometimes increase insulin levels. It can provide substrates to the liver and decrease ketone production, thus potentially kicking out the body from a state of ketosis.

But still, one high-protein meal will not affect your ketone levels in the body. We recommend you to stay within the following range based on your activity level.

  • If your activity level falls in the sedentary group, 0.6g and 0.8g protein per pound of lean body mass are recommended.
  • If your activity level drops in the active state, then the recommended amount for protein is in between range of 0.8g-1.0g per pound of lean body mass.
  • If your activity level falls in the lift weight category, then the recommended amount for protein is in between range of 1.0g-1.2g per pound of lean body mass.

Blood ketone level chart

Ketosis level

Blood ketone range

What does this mean?

Sugar-burning mode

<0.2 mmol/L

Your body has enough sugar, so ketone production is inconsistent.

Transitional phase

0.2-0.5 mmol/L

Your body is likely starting to produce ketones consistently.

Light ketosis

0.5-0.8 mmol/L

Consistent ketone production

Experiencing the benefits of ketosis

Ideal for everyday dieting

Medium ketosis

0.9-1.4 mmol/L


Deep ketosis

1.5-3.0 mmol/L

Might help promote weight loss

Might confer more neurological benefits

Therapeutic ketosis

3.0-5.0 mmol/L

Only recommended under close medical supervision for the treatment of certain medical conditions

Extended fast ketosis

3.0-5.0 mmol/L

May only be reached during extended fasts or extreme caloric restriction

Achieving this range consistently is unnecessary and indicative of a poorly-formulated keto diet

Sign of ketoacidosis

>10 mmol/L

Usually only occurs as a result of uncontrolled diabetes or alcoholism

Related questions

Can you achieve ketoacidosis state on a keto diet? High fat may induce ketoacidosis. Other than this, lactation can also aggravate the condition and can trigger you into ketoacidosis.

How can we prevent ketoacidosis? We can prevent ketoacidosis by following these measures:

  • Managing diabetes and following a healthy eating and physical activity plan.
  • Monitor the blood sugar level regularly.
  • Adjusting the insulin dose as needed.
  • Checking the ketone levels.

Can ketones be high on a keto diet? Healthy people can develop high ketone levels on a ketogenic diet. Keto diet promotes the weight loss and encourages the body to make more ketones to burn fat.

Which is the fastest way to get rid of ketones?

 If ketones are detected in your blood or urine, you should drink a plenty amount of water to flush out the ketones from body. Other than this, take insulin to bring the blood glucose level to normal range and check the ketone levels after every three to four hours.

What is the most common cause of ketoacidosis? The common causes of diabetic ketoacidosis includes the missing insulin, illness, infection or a clog in an insulin pump.


Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical or nutrition advice for your particular illness; health condition or goal; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health and nutrition issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Nutrition During Lactation and its Benefits:

Breast milk is a liquid food source that the human body generates to nourish newborns. In response to pregnancy and breastfeeding, the body produces it. However, individuals who have not been pregnant can also breastfeed with the help of hormones, medications, and stimulation like pumping.

Breast milk not only provides a child with enough nourishment, but it also boosts immunity. Nursing offers many benefits for both parents and children, and many of these benefits continue long after the breastfeeding period is over.

It’s amazing how flexible breast milk is; depending on the baby and the breastfeeding parent, its composition, color, volume, and flavor may all alter.

Nutrition during lactation:

In order to provide you and your child with the nourishment they require while you are lactating, it is essential to maintain a balanced diet. When breastfeeding, additional protein and calories are required. Eat three meals that are well-balanced and a few healthy snacks to meet your nutritional needs. Increase your intake of lean protein sources, fruits, vegetables, and healthy grains. Continue eating three servings of foods from the milk group each day to preserve your own bones and get the calcium needed for your baby’s bones.

Advantages of breastfeeding:

For baby:

  • It provides the liquids and nutrients needed for the first six months of life and is easier to digest than formula.
  • It may also offer some protection from allergies, ear infections, gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses, and SIDS.
  • It passes immunity from the mother to the child to help with illness prevention.
  • Lowers the risk of childhood obesity, diabetes, leukaemia, and lymphoma.
  • Some studies have found a correlation between IQ levels and later childhood.

For mom:

  • Helps the uterus return to normal size, may gradually assist with postpartum weight loss, and is more practical and inexpensive than formula.
  • Could reduce your risk of developing uterine and breast cancer
  • Deepens your relationship with your child

Nutrients requirements during lactation:


The recommended daily limit for breastfeeding mothers is 210 grammes of carbs, according to the Institute of Medicine. Breastfeeding women who regularly exercise may require more carbohydrates because they are the body’s main source of energy during physical activity. As long as you are getting at least 210 grammes of carbohydrates per day from wholesome sources, you can start reducing or eliminating harmful carbs from your diet.


Protein requirements for breastfeeding women are higher than for non-lactating women. For lactations lasting 0 to 6 months and 6 to 12 months, respectively, the recommended daily quantities should be raised by 16.8g and 12g, respectively.

The diet should carefully contain adequate amounts of high-quality protein for optimum milk production (milk, cheese, paneer, curds, poultry, eggs, cereal pulse combinations, nuts).

A diet lacking in protein and energy will result in a decrease in milk volume. The amount of casein (milk protein), however, may also decline if very little protein is taken.


It is recommended to eat extra fat in order to meet the essential fatty acid requirements. The energy density provided by this amount of fat in the diet would be sufficient to meet the higher energy needs of breastfeeding women.


Breast milk has about 30 milligrammes of calcium per 100 millilitres. On the basis of an optimal output of 850 ml, milk releases 300 mg of calcium every day. Additional calcium must be ingested in order to allow for the daily release of an additional 300 mg of calcium. A mother needs 1000 mg of calcium per day at this time to meet both her own needs and the calcium required for milk production.

The daily minimum amount of 500 ml of milk or milk products must be consumed to provide the calcium need, with the remaining requirements being met by other food items such ragi, Bengal gramme (whole), soybean, amaranth, fenugreek leaves, radish leaves, sesame seeds, tamarind, fish, etc.

Comparison of nutrient requirements in pregnancy and lactation



Recommended intake during pregnancy

Recommended intake during lactation

Energy (kcal)








Vitamin A(mcg)








Folic acid(mcg)
















Vitamin b12





Most moms who give birth to babies have enough food reserves to nurse their babies. The maternal diet may have an effect on the quantity of milk produced, the protein content, the water-soluble vitamin content, and the fatty acid composition.

Supplementing the diet of the mother with vitamins and minerals may not be necessary, with the exception of strict vegetarian mothers or mothers who are undernourished. Many doctors encourage the nursing mother to continue taking prenatal vitamins because it may be challenging to assess the quality of the mother’s diet while lactating. If suggested dietary adjustments are made for the mother, special conditions like diabetes, digestive problems, and inborn metabolic faults do not prohibit nursing. breastfeeding could be wholly or babies with special needs or those weighing less than 1500 g must have their nutritional requirements fully met. It could be required to alter the mother’s or the child’s diet in some ways.

Breast milk may possibly expose the newborn to contagious illnesses such hepatitis, herpes, TB, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It could be suggested to temporarily or permanently quit nursing. The only absolute contraindication to nursing is newborn galactosemia.

When a mother or newborn requires dietary modifications on either end, breastfeeding may be discouraged. This chapter’s specific recommendations are aimed to help a determined mother who wants to nurse her infant in meeting their nutritional demands. These recommendations aim to promote breastfeeding rather than discourage it.

Dn.Sadia Fatima is Director and Co-Founder of SDNO. She is a great nutrition entrepreneur and leader. Her actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more. She can be reached at @nutracare21_.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Relationship Between PCOS and Insulin Resistance

Most of the women now-a-days, are facing the issue of PCOS. PCOS known as polycystic ovararian syndrome is a condition in which the ovaries of the female produce abnormal quantity of male sex hormones, androgens. Numerous small cysts filled with fluid are formed in ovaries causing irregularity in menstrual cycle along with other complications. PCOS and insulin resistance is often interlinked with each other but what is the actual relationship between them? How is insulin resistance responsible for causing PCOS and is this thing curable?

It has been researched that 30-40% of the women facing the problem of PCOS are detected with insulin resistance that can lead towards high glucose levels in the body.1 Insulin resistance is considered as the root cause of PCOS that can exacerbate the symptoms of PCOS increasing the risk for type-2 diabetes and obesity. This relationship can be reversed with the management of lifestyle modifications and with the treatment through medications upon requirement. Medications should be recommended after screening so every women facing the issue of PCOS should get themselves screened for.

The condition and bio-chemistry of PCOS

PCOS called as polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that can cause irregular menstrual cycles, difficulty in conceiving, rise of male hormone levels and development of small follicles on the ovaries of females that hinder the egg production and release in women. PCOS is often linked with insulin sensitivity.

Insulin is produced by the gland pancreas that is located in the abdomen and have number of functions. Insulin is secreted in response of high blood glucose levels in the body. The glucose molecules after breakdown of carbohydrates consumed through diet enters the bloodstream after 15 minutes of intake. Insulin allows the cells to take up glucose for later use of energy.

If a person is resistant to insulin, the body does not responds to insulin in an efficient way. It leads to rise in glucose levels in the body. The consistent high levels of blood glucose can lead to pre-diabetes and then to diabetes in the person.

Link of PCOS and insulin resistance

It has been said that almost 60-70% of women face the issue of PCOS with insulin resistance. It is believed that high levels of hormone insulin cause the male hormone levels to rise in the body. Insulin is responsible for helping the sugar to enter the cells through insulin receptor cells. People facing the issue of insulin resistance needs more insulin than the normal level to proceed and process the sugar in body. If the insulin resistance is left unchecked, it can progress towards the condition of diabetes in women. Diabetes is diagnosed when the blood sugar levels are higher than 200 mg/dl and can also be identified authentically with HbA1c glucose test or with an oral glucose test. When the body produces excess insulin in the body, the insulin receptors function poorly and become incapable of not taking adequate sugars for the cells. Signs of diabetes include:

  • Polydypsia
  • Polyuria
  • Polyphagia
  • Fatigue
  • Numbness in hands and feet
  • Blurred vision

Relationship of diet with PCOS

Diet and nutrition plays a significant role in managing and treating PCOS. The combination of insulin resistance and inflammation in the body is also related with the diet which we consumed on daily basis. The blood sugar levels in the body become high in the state of insulin resistance especially if a person is in the habit of consuming refined carbs and added sugars. There are more chances of becoming insulin resistant with the increase of consumption from such dietary practices of simple carbohydrates and sugars.

People facing the PCOS show different response towards foods. There are different types of foods that can promote inflammation and can even worsen the condition and symptoms. On the other, there are various anti-inflammatory foods that can help to combat inflammation. It is recommended to switch to whole and less processed foods that can naturally provide benefits to the patient of PCOS instead of over-restricting the food items.

Foods to avoid with PCOS

There are various categories of foods that should be avoided if you are facing the condition of PCOS. We categorize them as follows:

  1. Foods and drinks with added sugar in high amounts

Sugary beverages with high amount of simple sugar in them are a lead contributor of high glucose levels in the body worldwide. The drinks like sweetened teas, sugary coffees, soda, and energy drinks are high in added sugars. Consuming such drinks on regular basis can worsen the insulin resistance contributing to inflammation in the body. It is not easy to detect sugar as we cannot easily spot it in foods especially in those which seem healthy. The foods like yogurt, dried fruits and nutrition bars, granola bars have added sugars in them. If you are aiming to lose weight, it is better to cut back on added sugars that can improve the insulin sensitivity in the body and can reduce the symptoms of PCOS in some women.

  1. Foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids

Omega-6 fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids are often interlinked but the truth is not so. Omega-3 fatty acids have high anti-inflammatory properties while omega-6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory. The foods which are not allowed on PCOS are from the sources of omega-6 fatty acids including the corn oil, vegetable oil, soybean oil, safflower and sunflower oils. Meat derived from animals that are fed on grain-based diet are also high in omega-6 fatty acids. Instead of these options, try to initiate the healthy fat from foods like fatty fish, nuts, seeds and grass-fed meat.

Foods good for PCOS

There are various anti-inflammatory foods that are considered good for PCOS. Some of them are explained below:

  1. Blueberries

Blueberries belonging to the category of anthocyanins are antioxidants in natures. Antioxidants are crucial for fighting against inflammation, and prevents the cell damage from free radicals. These are considered as the greatest source of fiber are natural sugar. Blueberries can raise the blood sugar levels in moderate amount as compared to the sudden spike caused by the refined sugars. It is due to the high fiber content in them so, blueberries should be included in the PCOS diet.

  1. Magnesium-rich foods

It has been said that women facing the issue of PCOS are likely to be deficient in magnesium. Magnesium is a trace element that promotes relaxation in the body and manages stress level. It also plays a role in controlling insulin resistance. Some of the food sources that are rich in magnesium are:

  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Nuts and butters like peanuts, cashews, nut butter, peanut butter
  • Soymilk
  • Spinach
  • Dark chocolate with 69% of cocoa
  • Black beans
  1. Vegetables without starch

Vegetables are considered as the best foods to eat for PCOS and besides this, they are beneficial for various other health matters too. Non-starchy vegetables are extremely low in carbohydrates and won’t raise your insulin levels in a significant way. Vegetables are extremely helpful for those who are following an insulin-resistant PCOS diet.

Green leafy and orange vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants. They help to combat the inflammation in the body and are great choice for a PCOS diet. Starchy vegetables can also be included in a PCOS diet but with a focus on moderate portion size in case of presence of insulin resistance. Starch can be broken down into blood sugar and can raise the sugar levels in the body worsening the insulin resistance. Some of the best dietary sources for non-starchy vegetables that can be included in PCOS diet are:

  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli and Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage and cauliflower
  • Carrots and cucumber
  • Celery and egg plant
  • Green beans and pea pods
  • Leafy green vegetables like kale, mustard greens
  • Mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Bell peppers
  • Salad greens like lettuce, spinach, endive
  • Squash and tomatoes

Metformin for PCOS and association with food

Metformin is a common ovulation induction agent that is effective for non-obese women facing the issue of PCOS. They are considered advantageous over the other first line treatments for anovulatory fertility conditions like clomiphene. Metformin with combination of clomiphene is an effective step for treatment for clomiphene-resistant women.

Metformin is an effective treatment for PCOS that enhances the body’s sensitivity to insulin. This drug decreases the circulating levels of insulin in the body and produces positive effect on the fat tissue. Metformin is recommended to women for PCOS treatment and to those having higher BMI. But the recent advances in nutrition have indicated that metformin is not a first-line therapy for treating PCOS in women. It is a treatment for patients facing the issue of type-2 diabetes. If you are facing the issue of PCOS, you can take metformin but adjust the diet. So, here we recommend the five foods that should be avoided while taking metformin:

Sugary drinks

It is better to avoid the sugary drinks if you are facing insulin-resistance PCOS. Metformin along with restriction of sugary drinks can work in a better way to improve the insulin sensitivity.


Alcoholic consumption along with intake of metformin can lead to development of lower blood sugar levels. Try to limit the alcohol drinks to no or just one drink per day if you are taking metformin for PCOS.

Foods with added simple sugars

Foods with added simple sugars are responsible for triggering the PCOS symptoms are can worsen the insulin resistance in body. It is recommended by AHA to limit the consumption of added sugars to less than 25 grams per day.

Refined grains

Refined grains are likely to raise the blood sugar levels and can worse the insulin resistance in body. Refined grains include all the bakery items like white bread and rice, bagels and tortillas. So, these items should be avoided while taking metformin for PCOS.

Fried food items

Metformin can sometimes cause gastrointestinal side effects in the body which can be due to the consumption of fried foods. You can cut off these fried foods that can help you to lose weight and to improve the PCOS symptoms.

Metformin and allowed food items

Nuts and seeds

Nuts and seeds are composed of unsaturated healthy fatty acids that are good for heart health and promotes healthy blood sugar levels. These are good for PCOS, and does not interfere with absorption of metformin.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory in nature. So women facing the issue of inflammatory PCOS can consume thedietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids along with metformin.

Protein-rich food items

Protein rich foods like chicken, fish, eggs, lentils and quinoa are helpful for PCOS as they provide feeling of fullness and improve satiety levels in the body. They do not raise the blood sugar levels in the body.

Non-starchy vegetables

Most of the non-starchy vegetables are low in carbohydrates and rich in fiber. These vegetables does not rise the blood sugar levels in the body. All the richly colored fruits and vegetables are good source of anti-oxidants that help in fighting inflammation in the body.

Lifestyle changes for managing PCOS

Along with diet and medications, betterment in lifestyle can also manage the PCOS with insulin sensitivity. These lifestyle changes include:

  • Initiating regular physical activity
  • Managing stress
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Taking PCOS supplements

Stopping the vicious cycle of PCOS and insulin resistance

Unfortunately, there is no cure for PCOS and it can be dealt only with modifications in lifestyle and medications. Symptoms can be managed through these tactics. Lifestyle changes has helped the people with PCOS to manage insulin resistance. You can gradually improve the habits in your lifestyle over the time including some habits below:

1. Exercising regularly

Exercise is one of the best way to manage both insulin resistance and PCOS. It cause the receptors of our muscle cells to take in the sugar without consuming extra insulin production. This process can make the insulin receptors sensitive to lower the insulin levels in body. Body responds to less insulin production for processing sugar. The lower levels of insulin, leads to the reduced androgen production helping in treating PCOS.

2. Healthy eating habits

Healthy eating habits are vital for the women having PCOS and insulin resistance especially in the ones having higher BMI. You goal should be to achieve a sustained weight loss over the time. It is advisable not to follow any fad diets as they are highly disruptive for health. You can lower the cytokine levels through reduction in the abdominal fat as they are harmful for the insulin receptors. Weight loss also helps the insulin receptors to work better and allows the pancreas to lower the production of insulin. It is important to reduce or in cases, cut down the simple sugars and carbohydrates as insulin resistance reduces the body’s ability to break down the carbs.

3. Stress reduction

‍Managing stress levels in PCOS, has shown the reduction in levels of insulin resistance. Stress encourages the stored sugars from the liver to get released that can cause sudden spike in the blood sugar and insulin levels.

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

She can be reached at

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Management of Osteoporosis In Post-Menopausal Women

Menopause, the natural ending of periods that usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, can increase the risk of osteoporosis, a condition in which bones become thin, less dense, and fracture easily. Increased bone loss is caused by the reduction in estrogen levels around menopause. In the first five years following menopause, women are thought to lose up to 10%-20% of their bone mass on average. According to research, osteoporosis will cause at least one fracture in one in two women over 60.

Any woman who is in the pre-menopausal stage can manage the risk for osteoporosis. Being a women, you can try some weight-bearing and resistance exercises and can adopt fall prevention strategies that are a part of a bone-healthy lifestyle. It is recommended to limit alcohol and intake of caffeine. Initiating calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus and protein-rich foods are the best dietary management for osteoporosis. 


Around the age of 25 to 30, when the skeleton has stopped growing, and the bones are at their strongest and thickest, women reach their highest bone mass.

Estrogen, a hormone in women, is crucial for maintaining bone density. Estrogen levels fall around the time of menopause, which typically happens around age 50 and causes more bone loss. Any bone loss that occurs around menopause might lead to osteoporosis if your peak bone mass before menopause is less than optimal, which is 1.105 g/cm2 to 1.141 g/cm2, aged 50-54 years.


Osteoporosis, which translates to “porous bones,” is a chronic disorder where bones lose structural support and are more likely to shatter or fracture. Osteoporosis is most frequently brought on by menopause. Estrogen levels begin to fluctuate and then decrease due to hormonal adjustments to accommodate typical menopausal changes. Estrogen’s decline during menopause greatly accelerates bone loss since it slows bone’s normal breakdown, preventing bones from becoming weaker.

One of the three estrogen hormones that the body typically produces is estradiol. Women going through menopause can easily see the effects of estradiol. As the ovaries stop producing estradiol throughout this process, women naturally have decreased amounts of the hormone because the menstrual periods cease.

Other hormones that contribute to the health of bones include vitamin D and calcium. Your body can absorb calcium with the aid of vitamin D. Calcium is required for the development of robust, healthy bones. Without enough calcium and vitamin D, bones may not develop properly in childhood and lose bulk as they age, becoming brittle and susceptible to breaking. If you don’t receive enough vitamin D, your body won’t be able to absorb calcium from your diet, even if you consume adequate calcium.


This alteration frequently brings hot flashes, vaginal dryness, night sweats, and other menopausal-like symptoms. Osteoporosis can develop with time if estrogen levels are too low.


Osteoporosis is frequently referred to as a “silent illness” because the early stages of bone loss are asymptomatic. Before their bones become so fragile that sudden stress, jolt, or tumble results in a fracture or a vertebra collapse, people may not be aware that they have osteoporosis. Initial symptoms of collapsed vertebrae may include excruciating back pain, height loss, or spinal abnormalities like a bent posture.


You can lower your risk of acquiring osteoporosis around the time of menopause by adhering to a few lifestyle suggestions, such as:

  • Aim for a daily Calcium intake of 1,300 mg.
  • Three to four portions of dairy stuff are included in this.
  • Numerous non-dairy foods also contain calcium, including fish with edible bones, such as sardines or tinned salmon, firm tofu, almonds, brazil nuts, unhulled tahini, and calcium-fortified soy or almond beverages.
  • Engage in regular, suitable weight-bearing exercise, such as resistance training with weights.
  • Avoid high extensive exercises or other activities that call for quick, powerful movements.
  • Exercise involving weight, such as weight training, tai chi, dancing, and brisk walking.
  • Do aerobic activity for your body two to three times weekly.
  • Perform strength exercise (resistance) once or twice each week.
  • Include stretching or flexibility exercises in your routine.
  • Maintain healthy amounts of vitamin D. Calcium absorption by the body is aided by vitamin D.
  • Following sun exposure, it is produced in the skin, and some foods contain a level of vitamin D.
  • Limit your alcohol consumption: current guidelines recommend a maximum of two standard drinks per day with two alcohol-free days per week for women.
  • Don’t smoke: smoking cigarettes is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis.
  • Limit your caffeine intake.

Nutrients Helpful in  Management of Osteoporosis


sources of


·         Green leafy vegetables including spinach, methi, mustard leaves, turnip greens

·         Fish with bones

·         Nuts and seeds like almonds, sesame seeds, flax-seeds  (High in calcium and omega-3 fats)

·         Quinoa (A light and healthy whole grain offering 60-100 mg of calcium in one cup)


sources of

Vitamin D

·         Egg yolks

·         Liver

·         Saltwater fish

·         Salmon

·         Mackerel and tuna


sources of


·         Meat

·         Seafood

·         Poultry

·         Eggs and dairy

·         Cheese and beans


sources of



·         Milk

·         Cheese

·         Yogurt

Agents with


Agents with vengeance means that there are some things in diet that can interfere with how much calcium our body can absorb. These includes:

·         Phytic acid (found in: Unleavened bread, raw beans, seeds and grains)

·         Oxalic acid (found in spinach)

·         Sodium (Keep the sodium intake down as high levels of sodium interferes with calcium retention)


Depending on your age, the results of a bone density test, and your history of fractures, some therapies & medical treatments are recommended by a doctor.

The medical treatments for osteoporosis:

  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS)
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Menopausal hormones therapy (MHT) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  • Denosumab
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D.

Supplement use in relation to bone health


of focus



Protein supplementation has a small but positive effect on lumbar spine bone mineral density.

Vitamin D

Supplements of vitamin D prevent fractures in older people as formulated and tested. Calcium and vitamin D supplements collectively are required in preventing hip and any other type of fracture.

Vitamin D

Supplementations of vitamin D has further shown small benefits at the femoral neck but no effects were seen at the other sites.

Vitamin D

Oral vitamin D supplementation (700-800 IU/day) can reduce the risks of hip and non-verbal fractures in institutionalized elderly persons.


Supplementation of calcium and dietary intake has shown small non-progressive increases in bone mineral density.

Vitamin K

Supplementation of vitamin K has shown positive results to increase bone mineral density at lumbar spine but not at the femoral neck.



There is no evidence found that the supplementation of phosphorus intake is related to the demineralization of bone or to excretion of calcium in the urine.

Recommended Questions

How can you treat pre-menopause and osteoporosis? Pre-menopause and osteoporosis can be treated by:

  • Combination oral contraceptives
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Teriparatide or PTH (1-34)

Which treatment is given to early osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women? Early treatment includes the initiation of bisphosphonates. It is the first choice treatment for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax) once in a week. Actonel can also be taken as a monthly pill.

How can women prevent the risk of osteoporosis in early menopause? The risk of osteoporosis during menopause can be reduced:

  • Initiating 1300 mg of dietary calcium intake, every day in diet.
  • Doing regular and appropriate weight-bearing physical activity, including the resistance training exercise with weights.

What do you mean by pre-menopausal osteoporosis? The chance of bone-thinning disease called as osteoporosis increase with the age in women especially after menopause. It is not an uncommon thing for women to get this condition before menopause and is called as pre-menopausal osteoporosis or bone loss.

Can a 40 years old women have osteoporosis? 40 Years old women can also get osteoporosis. It is more common in young people including the premenopausal women in their 20s, 30s and 40s.

Which is the best natural treatment for osteoporosis? The best natural treatment for osteoporosis includes:

  • Trying a vitamin-D supplement
  • Increasing the magnesium intake in diet
  • Tackling the stress
  • Making dietary changes
  • Avoiding sparkling juice and caffeine
  • Practicing some moderate exercise
Alnoor Naseem is a Nutritionist and Dietitian by profession and a writer by passion. Being a nutritionist, she loves to explore the science behind food and spread authentic knowledge so that people can clear their misconceptions regarding holistic nutrition and lifestyle.

She can be reached at

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Nutrition

Foundational Techniques For Dietetics Calculations

Do you also find it difficult to solve basic dietetics calculations’ including Body Mass Index (BMI), Ideal Body Weight (IBW), Fluid Requirement (FR), Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)? I have some good news for you so don’t worry anymore. In this article I will tell you the fundamental techniques to solve these calculations smoothly and ace your exams. Let’s begin!

  1.       BMI

You might wonder what is BMI? Don’t worry I got you covered.

Body mass index, or BMI, is a ratio of weight to height. It’s an accurate approach to determine whether a person’s weight is balanced with his/her height.

FORMULA:    BMI= Weight (in kg) / Height (in m2)

let’s take an example here:

Example: Shabnam is a university student having weight 65kg and height 5 feet 3 inches. What would be her BMI?

Data available:

Weight = 65kg

 Height = 5’3”

BMI =?


                                   BMI= W (in kg)/H (in m2).

Firstly, we will convert height in feet to height in meter2. For that multiply feet given with 12 and then add the additional inches. After this multiply the total inches with 0.0254 and you will get your answer in meter. Now you have to take square of the height in meter and you will get m2.

Height= (5×12) + 3 = 63 inches

H=63×0.0254 =1.60m

H= 1.60×1.60 = 2.56m2

Now put the values in given formula.

 BMI= 65/2.56

                                      BMI= 25 kg/m2 

To save time, you can find BMI with our online BMI Calculator: 

  1. IBW

Ideal body weight, or IBW, is thought to be the healthiest weight for an individual, based mostly on height but adjusted by elements including gender, age, build, and level of muscle development. For men, ideal body weight is calculated by using 106 pounds for the first 5 feet of height and adding 6 additional pounds for each inch. Women ideal body weight calculation starts with 100 pounds for the first 5 feet of height, and you only add 5 pounds for each additional inch. We will learn the calculations for both genders one by one.


(For a male) 106lbs for first 5 feet and 6lbs for additional inches.

(For a female) 100lbs for first 5 feet and 5lbs for additional inches.


Example: Hamid is a diploma student and his height is 5 feet 9 inches. What would be his IBW?

Data available:




IBW = 106lb + 6lb (inches over 5 feet)

IBW= 106 lb. + 6lb (9”)

Multiply 6 with 9 inches,

IBW= 106lb + 54lb

Now add the lbs.

IBW= 160lb

To convert it into kg divide by 2.2:

IBW= 160/2.2 =72.7kg



Example: Saima works in a hotel as a receptionist and her height is 5 feet 3 inches. What would be her IBW?

Data available:




IBW = 100lb + 5lb (inches over 5’)

IBW= 100 lb + 5lb (3”)

Multiply 5 with 3 inches,

IBW= 100lb + 15lb

Now add the lbs.

IBW= 115lb

To convert it into kg divide by 2.2:

IBW= 115/2.2 =52.2kg

To save time, you can find BMI with our online BMI Calculator:

  1.   Fluid requirement

Why calculating fluid requirement is necessary in nutrition?

BECAUSE! A vital component of life and health, water is involved in almost every process of the human body. The amount of fluid that each person needs is determined by their weight and varies with each individual. People are advised to follow the reference values of the fluid need in order to maintain the proper balance between water intake and water losses.

FORMULA: First 20kg 1500 ml & for each additional kg add 25 ml.

Example: A college student wants to know her daily fluid requirement, her weight is 65kg. What would be her FR?

Data available:

Weight= 65 kg


1500ml for the first 20kg and 25ml for each additional kg.

Fluid requirement= 1500ml + (25×45) ml

Fluid requirement= 1500ml + 1125ml

Fluid requirement= 2625ml


1 glass (1cup) = 250 ml

e.g. if one’s fluid requirement is 2000 ml, it can be calculated as 2000 ÷ 250 = 8 (means 8 glasses).

However, in this case:

Fluid requirement= 2625/250ml

  Fluid requirement= 11 glass /day




Total Energy Requirement = BEE x Activity Factor x Injury factor


Step  I:
 Calculate BEE (Basal Energy Expenditure) or BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate): Energy expended on basic body functions needed to sustain life.

BMR for female = 655 + (9.6× weight in kilos) + (1.8 ×height in cm) – (4.7 × age in years)

BMR for male = 66 + (13.7 × weight in kilos) + (5 X height in cm) – (6.8 × age in years)


Weight in kg = weight in lbs/2.2  

Height in cm =height in inches x 2.54

Step II:

Multiply BMR by the appropriate activity factor, as follows:

  • Sedentary(little or no exercise): BMR x 1-1.2
  • Lightly active(light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week): BMR x 1.1- 1.375
  • Moderately active(moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week): BMR x 1.55
  • Very active(hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week): BMR x 1.725
  • Extra active(very hard exercise/sports & physical job): BMR x 1.9

Step III:

Multiply by injury factor.

  • Surgery: Minor = 1.0 – 1.1 Major = 1.3 – 1.9
  • Infection: Mild = 1.0 – 1.2 Moderate = 1.2 -1.5 Severe = 1.4 -1.8
  • Trauma: Skeletal = 1.2 – 1.35 Blunt = 1.15 – 1.35
  • Burns: severe thermal= 2.1
  • Sepsis: 5 – 2.0
  • Cancers: 0 – 1.5
  • COPD, malnourished: 3



BEE, the most imperative part of Dietetics calculation which you would not want to neglect! So, let’s see what is it?

The quantity of energy, expressed in kcal/day or kj/day, that should be required to support all body functions and movements for an organism to exist for a day is known as basal energy expenditure (BEE). BEE may be computed using the Harris-Benedict basal energy expenditure formulae. The BEE may make up 40–70% of overall energy expenditure, depending on the level of physical activity. We will learn the calculations for both genders one by one.


Example: Javeria is 21 years old first year medical student. Her weight is 65kg, and height is 5’3”. She has a sedentary lifestyle and don’t have any injury at present. Calculate her Total Energy Expenditure.

Data available:

WT= 65KG

HT= 5’3”

AGE= 21yrs

Physical activity= Sedentary

Injury factor= none


first, we will Convert height in “cm”

HT=5’3” =5×12+3=63”

HT=63” × 2.54= 160 cm

now we will calculate BEE:

BEE=655.1+ {9.6×WT (kg)} + {1.85×HT (cm)}-{4.7×Age(years)}

BEE=655.1+{9.6×65kg} + {1.85×160cm}-{4.7×21years}

BEE= 655.1+624+296- 98.7

BEE= 1476.4 kcals


How can we forget TEE!

Calories burned throughout the course of a 24-hour period are measured as total energy expenditure (TEE). These calories are produced by the body as it works to maintain its own survival, including all physical activity as well as cognitive and digestive processes like breathing and digesting.


put values:

TEE=1476.4 × 1.1 × 1                                

 TEE=1624.04 kcals 



Example: Ahmad is 45 years old accountant. His weight is 87kg, and height is 5’9”. She has a slightly active lifestyle and don’t have any injury at present. Calculate his Total Energy Expenditure.

Data available:

Weight = 87kg

Age = 45yrs

Height = 5’9”

Physical activity = 1.1 (slightly active)

I.F= none


first, we will Convert height in “cm”

HT=5’9” =5×12+4=69”

HT=69” × 2.54= 175.26 cm

BEE=66.5+ {13.7×WT (kg)} + {5×HT (cm)}-{6.8×Age(years)}

BEE=66.5+ {13.7×87 (kg)} + {5×175.26 (cm)}-{6.8×45(years)}

BEE= 66.5+1191.9+876.3-306

BEE= 1828.7 kcals



TEE=1828.7 × 1.1 × 1

TEE= 2011.5 kcals


The above-mentioned calculations with their purposes will assist you both academically and for customizing Diet plans. Therefore, always keep in mind PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT And never stop practicing. BEST OF LUCK!

Dn.Misbah Saher is a top student of Diet and Nutrition at University of Lahore. She is also a freelance nutritionist and Blog-writer, keen in spreading awareness about Diet and Health related issues. She can be reached at @dietitians_corner.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Food Food Habits Knowledge Nutrition

Dangers of Sugar to our Body

Sugar is a broad term that is used a lot in daily rituals. We are consuming sugar in large amounts, which is present in almost all food items. Fruits, vegetables, sugary drinks, candies, and all sorts of food items are packed with sugar. Some have minimal sugar, while others are loaded heavily with this component. Sugar is present in natural and artificial forms in food items. Natural sources of sugar, such as fruits and dairy products, have less detrimental effects on the body than the artificial sugars from beverages, sodas, and desserts. So the question arises: What are the dangers of eating sugar, and how can we deal with them?

The alarming statistics on sugar consumption and the effects of sugar claim that unacceptable levels of sugar in the body could disrupt the metabolic, hormonal, and physiological conditions of the body leading to the initiation of various ailments, including:

  • Heart diseases
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Cancers
  • Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
  • Osteoporosis

The term ‘natural sugar’ does not mean that it is overall a healthy item for our health. Raw sugar is present in all the food items we consume daily, including high-carb meals and high-glycemic-index foods that can cause sudden blood sugar spikes. Other than this, there are hidden sugars in packaged and processed foods that should be considered. All the names mentioned on packaged items like brown sugar, corn sweetener, cane sugar, lactose, rice sugar, molasses, maple syrup, and others are the hidden forms of sugar that leave the same effect on the body. We should keep an eye on our daily sugar intake for our body.

Sometimes the sugar levels are high in the body, and we cannot figure out the exact issue, so various tests are available to detect the root cause of symptoms. There are many dangers of consuming too much sugar. HbA1c is a test in which the amount of glucose attached to the hemoglobin (red blood cell) is checked. 

  • Diabetes
  • Eye disorders
  • Hypertension and raised blood glucose can lead to:
  • Hyper and hypoglycemia
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Ketoacidosis 
  • Cataract

The Carbohydrate model of Sugar & Metabolic syndrome

The carbohydrate model is related to sugar addiction and the increased urge to consume sugar in the body. Our 80% of food items are loaded with sugars in different forms like lactose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, etc. Processed foods include artificial conditions of sugar that can raise blood sugar levels. The number of carbohydrates we consume in the body is directly associated with the levels of blood sugars in the body. 

The end-product of carbohydrates is glucose which is also called simple sugar. Simple sugar is responsible for raising blood sugar levels in the body. The higher levels of blood sugar in the body are managed by the hormone insulin, which converts the excess sugar into fat and drives the glucose in cells. This whole mechanism does not provide a feeling of fullness, and the person feels less satiated, which triggers the hunger hormone, and the person ends up attaining pleasure from sweet tastes. 

The beginning of metabolic syndrome

We consume carbohydrates in more amounts than other food groups as our central calorie intake revolves around this macronutrient for energy production. The end product of carbohydrates that is glucose, is managed by insulin that forces extra sugar to be converted into body fat for later use. Over the years, when we keep adding sugar and excess carbohydrates through carbohydrate loading in the body, our cells lose the ability to use the sugar for energy through the mitochondrial process.

It raises the sugar level in the bloodstream to a toxic level and leads to glycation, inflammation, and associated disorders. This overcompensation of compounds causes insulin resistance in the body that leads to the provocation of various metabolic diseases like:

  1. Increase levels of fasting blood sugar
  2. Excess levels of insulin
  3. Obesity
  4. High levels of triglycerides
  5. Lower levels of HDL and higher levels of LDL
  6. High blood pressure



It is seen that the endurance of diabetes has widely prevailed all around the globe in the past few years. It is considered the cancer danger of sugar. Although there are many different reasons for diabetes in human beings, it is scientifically proven that excessive sugar intake in the body leads to diabetes. Again, obesity is a widely spreading disease caused due to excessive intake of sugar, and it leads to the occurrence of diabetes in human beings. Also, it is seen that with increased intake, sugar causes resistance in the working pattern of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone that is naturally produced in the human body, produced in the pancreas and works to regulate the blood sugar level in the human body. With resistance in the work pattern on the insulin hormone, the blood sugar level in the body rises and increases the risk for diabetes.



It is seen all over the globe that obesity is considered an alarming problem not only in adults but in people of all age groups, from children to people of older ages. One of the main factors which play a vital role in obesity is soft drinks. Different researches are conducted all over the globe which proves that people who love to drink fizzy drinks and other drinks which contain added sugar in them are seen to be suffering from obesity at a very high rate, as compared to other people who don’t tend to take soft drinks much often. The reason for this is that sweetened drinks are rich in a nutrient which is called fructose. The main function of fructose when it enters the human body is that it increases the urge to hunger, leading to an increase in appetite, eventually leading to obesity.



High sugar intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The reason is that it has been proved by several medical science researchers that high sugar intake causes obesity, which eventually leads to inflammation of the arteries and blood vessels, which further leads to chronic heart diseases that can cause the death of a person. Also, it has been seen that consuming too much sugar in diets and sweetened drinks can lead to a disease called atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by fatty, artery-clogging deposits. In short, diets rich in high sugar can cause a person to develop heart disease, which can eventually lead to the death of a person.



The leading cause of acne and breakouts on our skin is a diet rich in sugar and sweets. The raised level of blood sugar and insulin triggers the release of androgens which increases oil production and excretion of sebum on the skin, causing acne. Can you be allergic to sugar? Yes, you can be allergic to sugar leading to a disastrous form of acne.

Sugar is available in various forms in almost all types of foods. The difference between low and high glycemic index foods helps people keep their quantity in moderation. There are fewer chances of development of acne if a diet revolves around low glycemic index foods. 

Research has proved that a diet low in glycemic index foods helps the person maintain the sugar and carbohydrate levels in the body and improves the acne. Acne, breakouts, and increased sebum and oil production in the skin are more due to intake of oily foods, refined carbohydrates, and high-sugar beverages and sodas. 



Eating meals rich in sugar significantly increases the risk of cancer in people. The reason for this is that, again, eating a diet that is high in sugar increases obesity in people, which eventually disturbs the mechanism of the overall human body, which can then lead to fatal diseases such as cancer.



Wrinkles are a natural process that appears on the skin of human beings, which shows that the person’s age is increasing with time. Although it is a natural process, some factors either accelerate or decelerate the aging process. Consuming too much sugar or eating food that contains excessive sugar in them accelerates the aging process a lot. The mechanism for this is that a diet rich in sugar causes significant damage to elastin and collagen, due to which the skin loses its firmness; hence, wrinkles are produced on the face and skin. 

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Micronutrients Nutrition Vitamins

Vitamin K

People often wonder if they can give their newborn babies vitamin K or not. People also don’t have the basic awareness of whether vitamin K is essential for their children or not. This article would elaborate the need for vitamin K, the benefits of this vitamin, and the basic information about why vitamin K is necessary for human beings.


Vitamin K is basically known as the fat-soluble vitamin which is found in food and other dietary supplements. The basic function of vitamin K in the human body is actually the post-synthetic modifications of certain proteins that are present in the human body. It is essential for blood coagulation in the human body and is also required in order to control the binding function of calcium in the bones and other tissues of the body.

Vitamin K is found in a number of food items which include cauliflowers, spinach, kale, mustard greens, and other vegetables. However, the chief source of vitamin K, where it is known to be produced, is the bacteria that is present in the large intestine of the human body.


There are a number of benefits that can be taken by regularly absorbing vitamin K into our bodies. Some of those benefits are listed below


Vitamin K is the basic vitamin that helps the body to make various proteins in the body that essentially help the function of blood coagulation in the body. It is also known as anticoagulant vitamin K. Other than that, those proteins which are produced by vitamin K also play a vital role in the building of bones in the human body. Vitamin K produces four different types of proteins that help the blood clot, in order to stop excessive bleeding in case of wounds. In simpler words, vitamin K helps the blood to stop overflowing from the wounds so that they can heal properly and quickly. Since vitamin K has a blood coagulating function, so it works to counteract the function of blood thinner medicines, which are often prescribed to people suffering from heart diseases.


Vitamin K plays a vital role in the nourishment of the health of the bones of the human body. Vitamin K produces a protein which is known as osteocalcin. The function of this protein is that it helps the bones grow stronger, and prevents the weakness of bones. There are some studies that show that people who have a higher intake of vitamin K in their bodies are at low risk of hip fracture and low bone density, as compared to those people who do not have a proper intake of vitamin K in their bodies.


Vitamin K also plays an important role in enhancing the health of the human heart, and thus reduces the risk of heart diseases. There are not so many researches that prove this fact, but still, there are some researches that show that vitamin K produces a protein which is called matrix GLA protein. This protein works to prevent the calcification of the arteries of the heart, which itself is a very big risk factor leading to heart diseases.


Although vitamin K is a vitamin that is naturally produced in the human body, it still has some sources through which human beings can obtain and ingest it into their bodies. Those few food sources are as follows;


It means green leafy vegetables. These vegetables include collards, turnip, green spinach, broccoli, cabbage and lettuce.

  • Soybeans and canola oils are also a source of vitamin K
  • Salad dressings made with soybean or canola oil.
  • Fortified meal replacement shakes

How much Vitamin K is required?

According to the National Library of Medicine, the recommended dietary amount (RDA) of vitamin K in different age groups is as follows:

  • Infants up to age group 1-3 years need 30 mcg per day
  • Children up to the age of 4-8 years need 55 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 9-13 years need 60 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 14-18 years need 75 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 9-13 years need 60 mcg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 14-18 years need 75 mcg per day
  • Adults (men) up to the age of 19+ years need 120 mcg per day
  • Adults (women) up to the age of 19+ years need 90 mcg per day
  • Older adults (men) up to the age of more than 70 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (women) up to the age of more than 70 years need 1.1 mg per day


Medical science says that vitamin K deficiency is hard to occur in adults. However, it is commonly seen in people who suffer from some major heart problems or other diseases and physicians prescribe blood-thinning medicines for them. A deficiency is also possible in newborn infants because vitamin K does not cross the placenta, and breast milk contains a low amount. Other than that, a deficiency in vitamin K causes:


If it takes blood a little longer time than usual to clot on a wound so that the blood can be stopped, then there is a chance that the person might be going through a deficiency of vitamin K


If it is seen in a person that bleeding for no reason is common, bleeding excessively takes place in the human body, there is a chance that the person might be going through deficiency of vitamin K


All these above-mentioned symptoms are related to vitamin K deficiency. If they are seen in a person, it is recommended that the person should consult a doctor on priority.

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Nutrition

Health Tips for Eid-ul-Adha

As the meaty Eid-ul-Adha is approaching, we are all getting ready to fill our bellies with hot plates of mutton biryani, top-notch steaks, and delectable kebabs. During this time of year, a lavish feast is prepared, and everyone enjoys the appetizing dishes made with the meat of the sacrificed goat or sheep. The abundance of meat—all of it prime, juicy, and delicious—brings with it a lack of self-control. And thus we inevitably eat way too much food.

Because of this, a lot of individuals visit hospitals after Eid. There are, however, methods to enjoy your feast while remaining healthy during Eid.

To ensure that you feel your best throughout the Eid-ul-Adha celebrations, follow these really simple guidelines:

It matters what kind of meat you eat

There are many different types of sacrificed meat available because several animals are slaughtered on Eid-ul-Adha. Meats like beef, mutton, lamb, and camel all have different compositions. Some of them have more fat than others, while others are a little bit leaner.

Typically, 100g of lamb meat has 21g of fat, compared to 3g in mutton, 30g in ground beef with 70% lean meat, and 6.4g in camel meat. Keep in mind that the longer it takes for the body to digest anything, the higher the satiety. Therefore, size your servings accordingly during Eid-ul-Adha while considering the type of meat you intend to eat.

The parts of the animal matter

Depending on the animal’s anatomy, fat and protein are distributed differently in different animals. The shanks and the neck, which have leaner flesh, are preferable to the sections with more fat. So, choose your foods intelligently to limit your overall intake of fat and consequently calories.

Be mindful of the portion size

 Although you might be tempted to taste the juicy, mouth-watering meat, hold yourself back. The kidneys and the liver might be negatively impacted by consuming a lot of protein. Additionally, your body needs time to metabolize the protein, so consuming too much of it can exhaust your system. Problems including acid reflux, motion sickness, and upset stomach may then result.

On a joyous occasion like Eid-ul-Adha, it can be a little frustrating to hold yourself back. After all, everyone is allowed to celebrate occasionally. In order to maintain your health throughout Eid, do not deprive yourself but rather indulge in a little bit of everything.

The mealtimes

Because Eid is all about socialising and meeting new people, schedules are often busy. Everyone’s home requires you to stop over and enjoy their hospitality. You must indulge the guests (and yourself!) with the meat offerings, sweets, and beverages. However, because you don’t give yourself enough time in between meals, this raises the risk of overeating. Since social gatherings frequently go late, it is worse when you find yourself eating at unusual hours.

It may be challenging, but you must space your meals by at least 6 hours. Before you eat more, give your body some time to digest the previous serving. You might have to decline some delectable kebabs, but you’ll appreciate it afterwards. Additionally, make an effort to reduce your caloric intake, particularly at night when your body is at rest.

Proper meat handling

The safe handling of the meat is an important principle to follow to stay healthy during Eid. Remove any visible fat from your meat and carefully clean it. Additionally, make sure the meat is thoroughly drained before being stored.

You should also be aware of the heat since Eid-ul-Adha falls right in the heart of summer in 2022. The meat can spoil if it is left outside for an extended period of time. Similarly, if your refrigeration is not operating properly, there is a potential that the meat will no longer be safe to eat.

Your health could be at risk if you eat meat that is contaminated or improperly cleaned.

Add some vegetables to the dish

Even though Eid-ul-Adha is simply known as meaty Eid, you do not necessarily have to apply that literally. If you want to stay healthy during Eid-ul-Adha and enjoy it, it’s not a good idea to restrict your diet to only proteins.

So, include wholesome foods like vegetables in the mix. Prepare stir-fried vegetables, grill or broil some alongside the meat. By consuming these wholesome vegetables with the meat, you are supplying your body with the fiber it needs. The fiber also helps to avoid heartburn in addition to constipation, which is inevitable if all you eat is meat.

Fiber offers the diet more bulk, which makes you feel more satisfied. As a result, it aids in preventing overstuffing. Additionally, the classic pairing of meat and veggies is one that, when done well, results in a delicious supper.

Avoid fried foods and soft drinks

You might be tempted to fry the beef pate to create a truly fantastic burger, but resist the desire. Though fresh meat is already hefty, frying it makes the flesh even heavier due to the added fat. It gets more calorically dense and is, therefore, more difficult for your body to process.

Stick to alternate methods of preparing meat instead of regretting the time you choose to fry the meat and experiencing epic amounts of heartburn. The enjoyment of eating fried meatballs may only last a short while, but the weight they will make you gain will take a lot of work to lose. So, exercise caution.

The cool colas and other chilly soft beverages can be tempting, especially after a particularly spicy meaty bite. These soft drinks are calorie-dense, though. They contain a lot of sugar, particularly liquid sugar, which is significantly riskier for the body. Adding soft drinks to the festivities is a terrible idea because we frequently overeat during the Eid celebrations.

Avoid overeating

Exercise some restraint if you don’t want to spend the Eid celebrations grabbing at your stomach or sobbing on the bathroom floor. The consumption of excessive amounts of red meat in a short period of time might have serious negative effects on your health.

Overindulging in red meat might result in food poisoning, nausea, acid reflux, stomach pain, or pangs. Particularly in those who already have GI disorders, overeating may result in more gastric troubles. Many people have the potential to become ill.

Workout, in an enjoyable way

It is true that it is challenging to get motivated to exercise during the holidays. However, it is advised that you get some exercise, but in a pleasurable way, if you want to digest all those heavy meals and avoid putting on weight during the days of Eid.

Try playing games while barbecuing or having a picnic with your friends and families. Cycling, bouncing a ball around, and engaging in light sports chit-chat with pals are a few great ways to get in some workout. You won’t even notice that you’re exercising!


Because of summer, our body needs more water to combat the heat. Dehydration is another possibility that increases when conditions like diarrhea or vomiting are present. Make sure to keep your portion sizes in check and avoid overeating. Seek prompt medical attention if you experience gastrointestinal problems.

Dn.Saqib Iqbal is CEO and Co-Founder of SDNO. He is a social worker, having his own non-profit organization (H.E.L.P Philantropy) for this cause. He is also a good writer and photographer. His leadership skills go beyond the limits. He can be reached at @diet_by_smarty.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Health Knowledge Micronutrients Nutrition Vitamins

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Whenever it comes to vitamins, there is something which every person knows in common. The fact that vitamins are good for human health, and that vitamins should be an essential part of a person’s diet and life. The same is about vitamin b6. This article would explore the importance of vitamin b6, the benefits of taking it, how much kids need each day, potential risks associated with taking too much or too little, and tips for ensuring that your kids are getting enough of this important nutrient.

What is Vitamin B6

This vitamin is considered to be an important vitamin for brain development and for ensuring the health of the human nervous system and immune system healthy. Another name for vitamin B6 is pyridoxine. Vitamin b6 is one of the B vitamins, which are essential for the health of the human body. Vitamin b6 is basically a water-soluble vitamin that is found in many natural foods and is found in a number of dietary supplements as well.

Benefits of Vitamin B6

Vitamins are essential products for our health. Our body needs different vitamins properly so that it can do its work good. The main role of vitamin b6 which is verified by medical research is that the main role of this vitamin is the prevention of diseases. One of the primary benefits of vitamin b6 is that it is considered to be the most effective medication for the treatment of nausea that occurs during pregnancy. However, in such cases, vitamin b6 supplements or medications should be used under the instructions of certified physicians.

Some other benefits of vitamin b6 are discussed below

  1. Cardiovascular Diseases:

People having high homocysteine levels are often seen suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Studies show that high homocysteine levels promote stroke and heart diseases in people, as it helps in creating clots in the bloodstream of the human body. The deficiency of vitamin B6 can increase the homocysteine level in the body while ingesting the recommended amount of homocysteine in the body can prevent cardiovascular diseases to occur in the body.

  1. Cognitive Functions:

Vitamin b6 helps in better cognitive functions in the body. For instance, it indirectly helps in better functioning of the brain by lowering the homocysteine level in the body, which eventually prevents severe diseases which include Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In short, vitamin b6 plays a role in enhancing memory and improves the functions of the brain.


  1. Cancer:

Studies show that vitamin b6 is considered to be an effective element that prevents cancer. Since the treatment of cancer has not been yet clinically proven, so this is not sure if vitamin b6 plays a role in the treatment of cancer or not, but it is proven that it does happen to be an effective element that helps in the prevention of cancer.  It does in such a way that it reduces the spread of tumor cells in the body.

How much vitamin B6 is necessary for the body?

According to the National Library of Medicine, the recommended dietary amount (RDA) of vitamin B6 in different age groups is as follows:

  • Infants up to age group 1-3 years need 0.5 mg per day
  • Children up to the age of 4-8 years need 0.6 mg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 9-13 years need 1.0 mg per day
  • Teenagers (boys) up to the age of 14-18 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 9-13 years need 1.0 mg per day
  • Teenagers (girls) up to the age of 14-18 years need 1.2 mg per day
  • Adults (men) up to the age of 19-50 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Adults (women) up to the age of 19-50 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (men) up to the age of more than 50 years need 1.3 mg per day
  • Older adults (women) up to the age of more than 70 years need 1.7 mg per day

Food Sources

Some of the foods high in vitamin b6 are:

  • Beef liver
  • Tuna
  • Salmon
  • Fortified cereals
  • Chickpeas
  • Poultry
  • Some vegetables and fruits, especially dark leafy greens, bananas, papayas, oranges, and cantaloupe

Signs of Deficiency

Alike other vitamins, the deficiency of vitamin b6 is also responsible for a number of diseases. These diseases include

  • Microcytic anemia
  • Skin conditions
  • Depression
  • Confusion
  • Lowered immunity
  • Kidney disease
  • Autoimmune intestinal disorders like celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease
  • Autoimmune inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis
  • Alcoholism

Dn.Zainab Naeem is Hosting and Content Writing Head of SDNO. She is a freelance nutritionist and writer, and also a self-taught calligrapher, artist and chef.  She can be reached at @xayni_de_artista.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Nutrition Diet Types Health Knowledge Trending Diets

A Trending Approach Towards Ketogenic Diet

Everything changes over time with a person’s needs and requirements. A human body varies its basic systems according to the external environment. Due to the rapid changes in the background, there are also some new trends in people’s diet, or we could say that there are so many options for an average person and people suffering from diseases, etc. One of the trending topics in the category of food and diet after intermittent fasting is the keto diet.

The Keto diet or commonly referred to as a low-carb and high-fat diet. According to the Harvard School of Public Health, the amount of carbohydrates in the keto diet is less than 50 grams per day, 50-80% fat from daily calories, 10-20% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrates. Protein in the ketogenic diet is kept in moderation relative to low carbs because protein can prevent ketosis.

A ketogenic diet was discovered to treat children with epilepsy. Over time, it has been used for weight loss and to treat many other diseases, but it is a symbol of fashion for the most part. When someone knows about the keto diet or uses it without knowing its downsides, people admire that person so much that it sometimes seems odd to us that a person could eat a balanced diet without every nutrient.

Types of Keto Diet

There are several types of keto diet including:

  • Standard Keto Diet
  • Very Low Carb Diet
  • Well-Formulated Keto Diet
  • MCT Keto Diet
  • Reduced Calorie Keto Diet
  • Cyclic Ketogenic Diet
  • Targeted Ketogenic Diet
  • High Protein Ketogenic Diet

Standard Keto Diet 

According to research, a standard diet is moderately high in protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fats. The macronutrient distribution in this kind of keto diet revolves around 55-60% of fat, 30-35% of proteins, and 5-10% of carbohydrates per 2000 kcal day. The limit of carbohydrates is up to 20-50g per day.

Very Low Carbohydrate Diet 

A very carb diet is deficient in carbohydrates, the same as a standard diet. The term “Well Formulated Ketogenic Diet” comes from Steve Phinney, one of the leading researchers in ketogenic nutrition. The WFKD follows a plan similar to a standard ketogenic diet that focuses on the initiation of proteins and non-starchy vegetables in the diet. This diet limits the consumption of grains, legumes, bread, pasta, starchy vegetables, fruits, and in some cases nuts and seeds too., There are some categories of low-carb diets that allow minor quantities of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

The MCT Diet

The MCT keto diet is the same as the standard keto diet, but this diet primarily uses medium-chain triglycerides. But it also allows people to use a little more carbohydrate and protein. But MCT can cause diarrhea and constipation, so it should be cooked with mixed MCT and non-MCT foods. The foods that are high in medium-chain triglycerides are coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter and milk, yogurt, and cheese of various kinds. Among these, coconut and palm oils are the richest dietary sources.

Cyclic Keto Diet 

The cyclic keto diet involves the pattern of the standard keto diet for 5-6 days in a week followed by the high carb intake for 1-2 days in the same week. This cyclic keto diet reduces the symptoms of keto flu and has shown effectiveness in boosting athletic performance and promoting muscle growth.

Targeted Keto Diet 

The targeted keto diet divides the macronutrients in the ratio of 65-70% from fat, 20% from proteins, and 10-15% from carbohydrates. A targeted ketogenic diet involves consuming high carbohydrates on training days. It is based on the concept that carbohydrates consumed before or after physical exertion are processed much more efficiently since the energy needs of the muscles increase when we are active.

Foods You Can Eat on a keto diet



Green Beans             
Bell Peppers        









Full-fat milk                
Heavy Cream           
Full fat Cheese            
Cream Cheese             
Grass-fed Butter          
Cottage Cheese

Benefits of the Keto Diet 

The potential benefits of the keto diet can include:

  • It is beneficial to treat epilepsy
  • for the treatment of cancer patients. 
  • It is very beneficial for weight loss.
  • Type 2 diabetics can also use the keto diet. 
  • It reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome and its associated disease. 
  • Some research has shown that the keto diet reduces the risks of Alzheimer’s diseases.

Disadvantages of the Keto Diet 

Several disadvantages of the keto diet are: 

  • One can have nutrient deficiencies due to the keto diet.
  • It’s not good for gut health.
  • Keto Diet Can Cause Keto Flu etc.

Laraib Zahra is a nutritionist and blog writer. She also creates meal plans according to individuals’ specific needs and requirements. She can be reached at @nutritiouslifestyle5.

Disclaimer: The information in this article is not intended as sound medical advice for your particular illness; rather, it is meant to increase awareness of common health issues. Before implementing any recommendations made in this article or choosing a treatment plan based on its contents, you should always speak with a qualified healthcare professional.

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